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J~r*~\ 



SEVENTH ANNUAL REPORT 



OF 



THE SECRETARY OF THE 
INTERIOR 



TO THE 



PHILIPPINE COMMISSION 



FOR THE 



FISCAL YEAR ENDED 
JUNE 30,; 1908 



. " ' -MANILA '• 
BUREAU t>F Pgt^i&G :, ; 










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SEVENTH ANNUAL REPORT 



OF 



THE SECRETARY OF THE 
INTERIOR 



TO THE 



PHILIPPINE COMMISSION 



FOR THE 



FISCAL YEAR ENDED 
JUNE 30, 1908 



MANILA 

BUREAU OF PRINTING 

1908 



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CONTENTS. 



Page. 

Inspection of provinces organized under the special provincial government 

act ■' 7 

Tagudin trail 8 

Conditions in Lepanto 8 

Cause of malaria at Cervantes ascertained 9 

Conditions in Bontoc 9 

Bontoc exchange 10 

Polis Mountain-Quiangan trail 11 

Gathering of Ifugaos at Banaue 12 

Certain Ifugaos attempt to resist governmental authority 12 

Disbursement of the special fund for the promotion of friendly relations 

with non-Christian tribes and the suppression of head-hunting 13 

Inspection trip to the subprovince of Apayao 14 

Baguio-Suyoc trail '. 17 

Establishment of the Mountain Province 17 

Transfer of Ilongot country to Nueva Vizcaya 19 

Establishment of a prison at Bontoc 19 

Contemplated improvements in the Mountain Province 20 

Murder of Americans by non-Christians 20 

Bureau of Health 21 

Philippine General Hospital 21 

Baguio Hospital 21 

New private hospitals 22 

Philippine Islands Medical Association 22 

Sanitary statistics for Manila 23 

Increase in population 23 

Improvements at Sibul Springs • 23 

Artesian wells 24 

Administration of the Food and Drugs Act 24 

Free dispensaries 24 

Medical inspection of schools 25 

Administration of public charities 25 

Medical examination of immigrants 25 

Vaccination 25 

Installation of Manila sewer system 28 

Sweeping public buildings 28 

Infant mortality in Manila...- 29 

Improvement in ambulance service 29 

Cholera 29 

Hookworm disease 30 

Leprosy 31 

X-ray treatment of leprosy 32 

Opium habit 33 

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Bureau of Health — Continued. Page. 

Bubonic plague 34 

Smallpox 34 

Sleeping sickness 35 

Tuberculosis 35 

Typhoid fever 35 

Baguio Hospital 35 

Need of provincial hospitals 36 

'Future policy in health work 36 

Quarantine service 37 

Immigration difficulties 37 

Bureau of Forestry 38 

Visit of a representative from the forest department of Java 38 

Forestry investigations in the Agusan River Valley 39 

Employment of Igorot fire wardens in northern Luzon 39 

Inspection of public lands 39 

Instruction of Filipino employees 39 

Forest maps 39 

Museum and herbarium collections 40 

Durability tests of woods.— 40 

Museum specimens 40 

Timber-testing laboratory 40 

Investigations in Mindoro 40 

Bureau of Science 41 

Relationship between the Bureau of Science and the Philippine Medical 

School 41 

The securing of trained men for the Bureau of Science 41 

Cement-testing laboratory 42 

Producer-gas plant 43 

Philippine Museum 43 

General scientific library 43 

Philippine Journal of Science 44 

Necessity for a new wing to the laboratory building 44 

Biological laboratory 44 

Autopsies 45 

Publications and investigations 45 

Serum section v 46 

Entomological section 46 

Botanical section 47 

Collection of natural-history specimens 48 

Chemical laboratory 49 

Division of weights, measures, and mineral analyses 50 

Laboratory for food and drugs inspection 50 

Division of mines 50 

Division of ethnology 52 

Division of fish and fisheries 52 

Work of the steamer Albatross 53 

Bureau of Lands 54 

New work 54 

Transfer of the office to Baguio 55 

Law clerk needed by the Bureau of Lands 56 



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Bureau of Lands — Continued. Page. 

Friar lands 56 

New leases 57 

Sales 58 

Amendments to Friar Land Act 58 

Friar-land loans 59 

Special inducements to occupation and cultivation of friar estates.. 60 
Reservations requested on friar lands for Insular, municipal and 

provincial purposes 60 

False rumors relative to the repurchase of portions of friar estates 

by friars 61 

Political and other difficulties 61 

Repairs to irrigation works 61 

Homesteads 62 

Public lands 62 

Sales of 63 

Leases of 63 

Free patents to native settlers 63 

Town sites 64 

Unperfected titles 64 

Surveys 64 

Mineral and mining claims 64 

Reclaimed land 65 

Insular Government property 65 

Road surveys and monument locations 66 

San Lazaro Estate 6^ 

Bureau of Agriculture 67 

Control of animal diseases 67 

Sale of serum animals 69 

Proposed sale of serum 69 

Establishment of a veterinary college recommended 69 

Publications 70 

Agricultural-extension work 70 

Crop reporting and statistics 71 

Mechanical plowing 71 

Maguey 72 

Guinea grass 72 

Miscellaneous products 73 

Seed and plant distribution 73 

Establishment of a forage plant provided for 74 

Weather Bureau 74 

Foreign cable facilities 75 

Earthquakes . 75 

Transfer of the crop reporting service to the Bureau of Agriculture 75 

Extraordinary publications 75 

Difficulties 76 

Meteorological and geodynamic observatory at Baguio 76 

Receipts and disbursements of Bureaus 77 



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SEVENTH ANNUAL REPORT OF THE SECRETARY 
OF THE INTERIOR. 



Department of the Interior, 
Manila, P. I., September 1, 1908. 
Gentlemen : I have the honor to present the seventh annal report 
of the operations of the Department of the Interior, which, unless other- 
wise expressly stated, covers the year ending June 30, 1908. 

INSPECTION OF PROVINCES ORGANIZED UNDER THE SPECIAL 
PROVINCIAL, GOVERNMENT ACT. 

The Provinces of Mindoro, Palawan, and Agusan were inspected 
during the first quarter of the year just closed and a statement as to the 
conditions found was included in the last annual report of the under- 
signed. 

The inspection of the Province of Benguet was made during the 
presence at Baguio of the Philippine Commission in April, May and 
June. 

As the Philippine Legislature did not adjourn until July 19, 1908, 
and as there was a bare quorum of the Commission present in the 
Philippine Islands, it was necessary to delay the inspection trip through 
Amburayan, Lepanto, Bontoc and Nueva Vizcaya until that time. 
Although this delay threw the trip into the midst of the rainy season, 
it gave time for the completion of important engineering work which 
the undersigned was anxious to see in a finished state. 

Tagudin, the capital of Amburayan, was reached by sea. A light 
has just been erected on the coast, marking the position of the town 
at night, and there seems to be less surf at this point than at Candon, 
Vigan or Laoag. 

Under the administration of Lieutenant-Governor Evans, the satis- 
factory conditions which existed among the non-Christian inhabitants 
of Amburayan have been maintained, while the unhappy dissension 
which so greatly interfered with the progress of the Christian inhabit- 
ants of the subprovince has been ended and conditions are now more 
favorable than at any time since American occupation. The munici- 
pality is improving its public buildings and its highways and is showing 
a most commendable and progressive spirit, in spite of the recent 
disastrous failure of its rice crop, due to drouth. It has some 5 square 
miles of rich rice land, which, it is believed, could be irrigated at 

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comparatively small expense with water taken from the Amburayan River. 
This matter has been brought to the attention of the Irrigation Com- 
mittee by the undersigned, and should an irrigation system be constructed 
Tagudin would harvest two crops of rice per year and would become 
one of the most prosperous towns on the west coast of northern Luzon. 

THE TAGUDIN TRAIL. 

The trail which connects Tagudin with Cervantes was finally com- 
pleted a few hours before the undersigned passed over it, an entirely 
new location having been made from the crest of Malaya Mountain to 
the valley of the Abra River. The distance from Tagudin to Cervantes 
by the new trail is 40 miles. The only two streams of any size which 
are crossed have been spanned by permanent bridges, suitable for heavy 
wheeled traffic, and interruption to communication by floods during the 
rainy season is improbable. 

A trip by the old trail to Candon involved the fording of a swift 
river thirteen times, and for considerable periods during the rainy 
season it was often impossible to get through. The grade of the 
Tagudin trail is everywhere below 6 per cent, and it requires only 
widening and surfacing to convert it into an excellent carriage road. 

The total cost of the trail to date, including maintenance during a 
rainy season of exceptional severity, has been f*5 5,800. 

In view of the excessively difficult nature of the country which it 
traverses, the undersigned considers that it affords a very conclusive 
demonstration of the satisfactory results which may be achieved in 
opening up good lines of communication throughout the most rugged 
mountain regions of northern Luzon. 

CONDITIONS IN LEPANTO. 

Conditions in the subprovince of Lepanto have continued satisfactory, 
and, as is usually the case, little has occurred there which calls for 
special mention. Most of the inhabitants of this subprovince are 
peaceful, industrious Igorots. Many of them are well to do and own 
horses and cattle in considerable numbers. The animal industry of 
the province, which was in a most flourishing state, was seriously 
threatened by a serious outbreak of anthrax at Bauco. It appears that 
years ago a similar outbreak occurred and that the animals which died 
were buried at a considerable depth. Shortly prior to the new outbreak 
it is stated that peculiar worms, of a kind which had not been seen by 
the people in the vicinity for many years, appeared in considerable 
numbers on the surface of the ground and the Igorots believe, perhaps 
not without reason, that they brought the disease with them. By 
strenuous efforts on the part of the provincial government and the 
Bureau of Agriculture, aided by the effective cooperation of the Igorots 



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9 

of the neighboring towns, who seemed fully to realize the gravity of the 
menace to their herds, the disease was fortunately confined to the im- 
mediate vicinity of the region where it originated and was ultimately 
stamped out. 

CAUSE OF MALARIA AT CERVANTES ASCERTAINED. 

During a period of fixe years, the undersigned has noted the occur- 
rence of a severe outbreak of malarial fever, affecting a large portion 
of the population of Cervantes, at the beginning of each dry season. 
As the town itself is always quite dry, and is excessively so at this 
season, it was difficult to see where mosquitoes could breed. With a 
view to ascertaining this and removing the cause of the trouble, if 
possible, the Bureau of Science was this year requested to send an 
entomologist to make a careful investigation. Anopheles was found 
breeding abundantly in the Abra Kiver. This is a large stream during 
the rainy season but shrinks rapidly as the dry season advances, leaving 
very numerous shallow pools in which the larvae of Anopheles were 
found in large numbers. Although the river is so far from Cervantes 
that it had not previously been regarded as a possible source of trouble, 
there is now good reason to believe that the mosquitoes hatched in its 
waters are blown into the town in large numbers by the strong northeast 
winds which prevail at the beginning of the dry season. 

Unfortunately the condition is one that can not well be remedied. 
Tt would be impossible, at any reasonable cost, to confine the river within 
narrow limits at this point, and the use- of kerosene over such a large 
area as that occupied by the pools which are left as the dry season 
advances is hardly practicable. 

This is one of several causes which have combined to lead the un- 
dersigned to recommend the transfer of the capital of the Province to 
Bontoc. 

CONDITIONS IN BONTOC. 

Upon the arrival of the Secretary of the Interior at the town of 
Bontoc, there were found representatives of all but two of the settle- 
ments of the subprovince. Approximately a thousand headmen were 
present, to say nothing of their several escorts. Included in this 
number were ten of the chiefs of Lubuagan, who had brought 400 
followers. It is said that only two men from this town had ever pre- 
viously visited Bontoc. 

The gathering included representatives of numerous settlements which 
had long been bitterly hostile and was most useful in that it resulted in 
their eating, drinking and dancing together and growing friendly. It 
also afforded an opportunity for the inauguration of the first of what it 
is hoped may be an annual series of athletic field-days which will have 



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10 

an important influence upon public order. While there may seem to 
he little connection between athletic sports and public order among head- 
hunters, it must be remembered that head-hunting is regarded by many 
of those who engage in it in the light of a sport, and serves as an outlet 
for superfluous animal spirits which might profitably be directed into 
other channels. 

There already exists among the Bontoc Igorots and the Ifugaos a 
custom of occasionally settling disputes between rancherias by holding 
wrestling matches instead of by fighting them out, and this fact has 
been taken advantage of in inaugurating the field-days above referred to. 

In the present instance there were held running races, lance-throwing 
contests, tugs-of-war, wrestling matches and other athletic contests, 
including several peculiar to these Igorots. There was no lack of con- 
testants; competition was extremely keen and wild is a mild term to 
apply to the enthusiasm of the friends of successful contestants, while 
the losers usually took their discomfiture quite philosophically. The 
superb physical development which is the rule among these wild men 
resulted in many very creditable perfomances. 

It is believed that such field-days may be made very important annual 
events to the wild man and that he will be more willing to forego the 
excitement of a head-hunt and the feast which follows in the event 
of success if he is given an opportunity to show his prowess before a 
crowd far larger than any that would ever witness his exploits in war, 
and if he realizes, at the same time, that by going out on a head-hunt 
he will lose all chance of participating in the great annual "canao." 

Another advantage of these large gatherings is that it gives the 
Secretary of the Interior a chance to meet and confer with all the 
important chiefs in the region in which they are held. The feasting 
which accompanies them produces a general feeling of good-will and 
an exceptionally favorable opportunity is afforded for exerting over 
the headmen who are assembled a strong influence, which through 
them ultimately extends to very remote regions. 

THE BONTOC EXCHANGE. 

The proposed Government exchange at Bontoc referred to in the 
last annual report of the Secretary of the Interior has been established 
and has proved a very important factor in promoting friendly relations 
with the people and in facilitating the construction of public works 
and the maintenance of public order. A small building has been erected 
in which are kept for sale all of the necessaries and many of the luxuries 
of the Igorot. They are sold at Manila prices, plus the cost of trans- 
portation, plus 20 per cent., and the resulting prices are lower than 
any of which he has heretofore dreamed. If he desires to sell his lance, 
his shield, his highly ornamented rattan cap, his smoking pipe, or any 
other article which would gladden the heart of a curio dealer, he is paid 



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11 

a good price for it in cash. He then has the satisfaction of carrying 
real money about with him and he may also experience the joy of 
spending it for some long-coveted and hitherto unattainable article. 

Bice, dry grass for mats, hewn lumber and various other products are 
also purchased at the exchange by the provincial government which can 
readily use them or dispose of them. A strong inducement is offered to 
labor on trails, bridges and other public works when the laborer knows 
that without making the long and dangerous trip to the coast he can 
immediately spend his wages to advantage and can secure what he needs 
for himself and his family. 

Within ten days of the opening of the exchange most of its stock of 
goods was exhausted and as the rainy season was at its height some time 
necessarily elapsed before more could be brought in. Nevertheless, sales 
have amounted to 1*9,000 in nine months and are rapidly increasing. 

Three sides of the small rectangular plaza on which the exchange is 
situated are surrounded by a long building, divided into stalls in which 
people from different rancher tas may display their wares for sale, and a 
conveniently situated rest-house affords sleeping quarters for visitors 
from distant settlements. 

The Igorots of Bontoc are now themselves demanding that travel on 
the trails be made and kept safe in order that they may be able to get 
to the exchange and trade. They are thus becoming directly interested 
in the maintenance of public order. 

The influence of this exchange has made itself felt even among the 
Ifugaos of Xueva Vizcaya and arrangements have been completed for 
opening a similar concern in their territory. Others will be established 
in the country of the Kalingas and in Apayao. 

The Bontoc Igorots have behaved especially well during the past year 
and there have been very few cases of headhunting among them. 

THE POLIS MOUtfTAIX-QUIANGAX TRAIL. 

The trip from Bontoc to Nueva Vizcaya has been made easy by the 
completion of a fine trail from the top of Polis Mountain to Banaue 
and Quiangan, a distance of 46 miles. The old trail from the crest 
of the Polis range to Banaue was excessively bad. There were long 
stretches over which it was impossible to ride even a native pony and 
the trip was possible only to persons who were in good physical condition 
and accustomed to severe exertion. As there seemed no reason why the 
thousands of feet of adverse grade on this old trail should not be entirely 
cut out and a new line surveyed with a grade not exceeding 6 per cent., 

, and as funds were available for the performance of this work, the 
Secretary of the Interior ordered it begun in May, 1907, and had the 
pleasure of inspecting the finished trail in June, 1908. The grade is 
4 per cent, or less for the greater part of the distance, and a horse may 

now be ridden at a trot either up or down the mountain. An excellent 



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rest-house at the summit affords travelers protection from the cold and 
dampness, while a stable serves a similar purpose for their horses. The 
view from the crest of the range is magnificent and the beauty of the 
tropical vegetation on its eastern slopes is beyond description. 

GATHERING OF IFUGAOS AT BANAUE. 

At Banaue was assembled what was doubtless the most remarkable 
gathering of wild men ever brought together in northern Luzon. The 
Ifugaos of Nueva Vizcaya have been active and fierce head-hunters, and 
feuds have existed for centuries between their various settlements. The 
first attempt ever made to bring them together* in considerable numbers 
was at Quiangan during the annual inspection trip of 1907. It resulted 
so successfully that this year a strong effort was put forth to assemble 
larger gatherings both at Quiangan and at Banaue. A year ago this 
would have been impracticable at the latter place, but during the year 
great progress has been made in establishing friendly feeling between 
lifelong Ifugao enemies. 

This progress is largely due to the courage and tact of Lieut. Jeff D. 
Gallman, Philippines Constabulary, who has tramped ceaselessly over the 
country, making friends with the well-disposed Ifugaos in their own 
settlements and at the same time capturing and turning over to the courts 
the evil doers. 

In building the Polis Mountain trail and the Constabulary head- 
quarters at Banaue care was taken to have laborers from hostile rancherias 
work side by side and as a result they soon became friends. 

CERTAIN IFUGAOS ATTEMPT TO RESIST GOVERNMENTAL AUTHORITY. 

Shortly before the arrival of the undersigned the young men of Lingay 
killed a Banaue policeman, took his head and his gun, and, encouraged 
by their success, sent a challenge to Lieutenant Gallman to come with his 
Constabulary soldiers and fight them. They had managed to get together 
eleven guns, had dismantled their houses, hiding the thatch and boards 
in the hills; had removed their domestic animals and had strongly 
intrenched themselves. When the resulting unpleasantness was over 
Lieutenant Gallman was in possession of all their eleven guns and had 
taught them a lesson which will not be forgotten for many years. A 
few days later their old men came to Banaue to give themselves up 
and ask for a cessation of hostilities, which was promptly conceded to 
them. Among the' friendly dancers at Banaue we saw a chief who fired 
some sixty rounds at Lieutenant Gallman and his command during the 
Lingay fight. 

The attempt to bring about a general gathering of the Ifugao head- 
men of northwestern Nueva Vizcaya at Banaue was completely suc- 
cessful, representatives being present from Mayoyao on the Isabela 
boundary to Asin on the Benguet line. 



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The delegations, which arrived separately, presented a very imposing 
appearance as they came marching in, each led by its gansa players and 
its chief. The fighting men came armed and the plaza at Banaue bristled 
throughout the day with their lances, which were immediately stuck in 
the ground on their arrival but were promptly seized by their owners as 
a precautionary measure whenever there was any sign of disturbance in 
the crowd, which numbered at least three thousand. 

The Secretary of the Interior had an opportunity to meet, for the first 
time, many of the more redoubtable chiefs of this region and the friend- 
liest relations were established. Furthermore, as at Bontoc, enemies 
danced together and made friends. With great difficulty three carabaos 
and two cows had been secured and a grand feast was given these people, 
many of whom almost never have an opportunity to taste meat. Presents 
were distributed among the chiefs who had rendered themselves con- 
spicuous by their loyalty or had been especially helpful in securing labor 
for trail work and the construction of buildings. At dusk this crowd of 
armed men, many of whom had been fighting each other a few months 
before, dispersed peaceably, and no unpleasant incident marred the day. 

At Quiangan a still larger gathering was assembled. As that of the 
previous year at this place had been a success, it was comparatively easy 
to arrange for a second one. Some five thousand outsiders were present, 
not to mention the contingent from Quiangan itself, which was large. 

Here, as at Banaue, the gathering broke up without any untoward 
incident and it was unquestionably extremely useful in promoting friendly 
relations both among the people and between them and the authorities. 
This assemblage of wild men, undoubtedly the largest ever held in the 
Philippines, was in a large measure made possible by the excellent pre- 
liminary work of Lieutenant Mamban, a Filipino Constabulary officer, 
stationed at Quiangan, who while fearlessly performing his duties has 
made himself very popular with the Ifugaos of that region and during 
the past year, as the direct result of his friendship with them, has suc- 
ceeded in persuading them to open up some fifty miles of trail over which 
horses can be taken. 

Both Lieutenant Gallman and Lieutenant Mamban are entitled to great 
credit for what they have accomplished. 

DISBURSEMENT OF THE SPECIAL FUND FOR THE PROMOTION OF FRIENDLY 
RELATIONS WITH NON-CHRISTIAN TRIBES AND THE SUPPRESSION OF 
HEAD-HUNTING. 

The successful holding of the above-described gatherings at Bontoc, 
Banaue and Quiangan was made possible through the appropriation by 
the Commission of a special fund of 1*6,000, expendable in the discretion 
of the Secretary of the Interior, for the suppression of head-hunting and 
the promotion of friendly relations with non-Christian tribes. 

When an American official visits an Igorot or Ifugao chief, the latter 



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almost invariably holds a "canao" or feast in honor of his arrival and 
when an American official invites an Igorot or Ifugao chief to visit him, 
it is obviously incumbent upon him to return the compliment, but if he 
were obliged to supply food and drink for several thousand hungry guests 
for a period of two or three days at his own expense, these gatherings 
would necessarily be somewhat burdensome. During the past year this 
special fund has been used to defray the expense of entertainment at the 
gatherings of Igorots and Ifugaos at Quiangan, Banaue, Bontoc and 
Cervantes, for purchasing presents to be given to chiefs and others who 
have especially distinguished themselves by their hard work or loyalty 
during the year, and for paying small salaries to faithful and efficient 
headmen in settlements which had no funds of their own and which had 
not advanced sufficiently in social development to render it wise to impose 
on them .any taxes. When it is remembered that the largest salary paid 
has been ^6 per month, the fact will be realized that the good will and 
efficient service obtained have been out of all proportion to the insigni- 
ficant expense involved. 

INSPECTION TRIP TO THE SUBPROVINCE OF APAYAO. 

The undersigned had expected, in reaching Apayao, to go through 
Nueva Vizcaya to Echague in Isabela and descend the Rio Grande de 
Cagayan to Aparri, but this proving impossible owing to torrential rains 
which made the trails of Isabela impassable, returned to Manila and on 
August 22 sailed for Aparri direct. After running up to the capital of 
the subprovince of Batanes to deliver messages to the lieutenant-governor, 
and leaving at a convenient point on the beach a party from the Bureau 
of Science which desired to investigate the western mountain region of 
Cagayan, he proceeded to the mouth of the Abulug River. As the sea 
was very calm it proved possible to cross the bar and ascend the river to 
the town of Abulug in the ship's boats. 

At this point the baggage was transferred to very light-draft native 
boats known as barangayans and the party consisting of Lieutenant- 
Governor Villamor, of Apayao; Colonel Taylor, director of the Fifth 
Constabulary District; Governor William F. Pack, of Benguet, and the 
undersigned, proceeded up the river. 

The Spanish Government never succeeded in gaining a foothold in 
the mountain region of Apayao. During the insurrection, Lieutenant 
Gilmore of the United States Navy and his fellow-captives were taken into 
the southern part of it by insurgents and were there abandoned. They 
were overtaken by the United States troops which went in pursuit of 
their captors and the whole party of Americans finally got through to 
the coast by descending the river on rafts and in the barangayans of the 
wild Tingians. 

So far as is known no white man had ever penetrated the northern 
and central portions of Apayao until the undersigned in company with 



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15 

Dr. Paul C. Freer, Director of the Bureau of Science, Sr. Bias Villamor, 
Major Crawford, and Lieutenant Atkins, of the Philippines Constab- 
ulary, with twenty-five men and the necessary carriers, started in 1906 
from Piddig in north Ilocos, ascended the western slopes of the Cor- 
dillera and descended its eastern slopes to Dalloas, a rancheria near the 
headwaters of the Abulug Biver. 

From this place the descent of the river was subsequently made on 
bamboo rafts. The party stopped at all important rancherias and 
established friendly relations with all natives met. In spite of the 
unsavory reputation hitherto borne by the wild men of this region no 
opposition whatever was encountered. 

A few months later Major Crawford undertook an independent Con- 
stabulary expedition into this country. He was indiscreet enough, when 
approaching Guenned, to allow enemies of the Guenned people to ac- 
company him and was in consequence attacked and defeated, which was 
most unfortunate, as American prestige in this region necessarily suffered 
seriously. 

He subsequently returned with a punitive expedition and was again 
attacked at the scene of his first skirmish. He finally succeeded in 
entering an important barrio of Guenned where he inflicted a limited 
amount of damage by burning houses and cutting down cocoanut trees. 
It is needless to say that these occurrences did not tend to increase 
the popularity of Americans in Apayao and as the river immediately 
in front of Guenned was swift, deep and so choked with rocks as to 
make the passage very dangerous, the people of this place were in a 
position to cut the communications of any force which operated above 
them. 

The original plan of establishing the capital of the subprovince near 
the center of its mountainous portion was therefore necessarily aban- 
doned for the time being. Sr. Bias Villamor was appointed lieutenant- 
governor and was directed to take station at Tauit near the point where 
the Abulug Biver leaves the mountains and four hours travel by boat 
below Guenned. 

The task which confronted him when he proceeded to his post in July, 
1907, was one of peculiar difficulty. It was necessary to provide quarters 
for himself and for a company of Constabulary soldiers in a dense 
forest at a point remote from civilization. The only line of communica- 
tion with the outside world was afforded by the Abulug Biver, which 
can hardly be navigated during the dry season on account of low water 
and is swift and dangerous during the rains. 

The inhabitants of the country adjacent to the lower portion of this 
river are for the most part Negritos. They had been abused by the 
Christian natives and their heads had been diligently sought by the 
wild Tingians of the mountains, so that they were always ready to 
greet strangers with poisoned arrows. 



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The mountain region was inhabited by the most inveterate head- 
hunters of northern Luzon. They had never experienced governmental 
control of any sort and most of them had never even seen a white, man. 

As we now ascended the river we found that considerable areas of 
rich agricultural land hitherto unoccupied by reason of fear of head- 
hunters had been cleared and were being cultivated by Ilocanos and 
Ibanags. The Negritos no longer took to the woods on our approach 
nor showed any inclination to shoot arrows at us. Having been assured 
of adequate protection against the head-hunters they are settling in 
considerable numbers along the river, are raising a good deal of corn 
and rice, and in a number of instances have built fairly decent houses, 
an unprecedented thing for Negritos! We stopped at two of their 
settlements and numbers of them came in to greet us. 

At Tauit we found a large and comfortable Government building 
which is used for a residence and office building by the lieutenant- 
governor and the deputy of the provincial treasurer, and for the sub- 
provincial post-office. We also found a well-constructed barrack build- 
ing occupied by an exceedingly well-disciplined and efficient Constabulary 
company. 

Subsequently we visited the rancherias of Tauit, Burayutan, Guenned 
Uaga, and Bolo and then returned to Abulug and Aparri. 

We took with us, at their request, Bunnad, headman of Guenned, 
who fought Major Crawford; Unni, chief of a neighboring rancheria; 
two young men, two boys and a little girl, who desired to go to Manila. 
Their friends and neighbors believed that they would never return and 
their reappearance will create a sensation which, however, will be 
insignificant when compared with that which will be produced by their 
wonderful stories of their experiences while at Manila and on their 
long journey. 

Lieutenant-Governor Villamor has established the friendliest relations 
with the people throughout the greater part of his subprovince, has 
already gained a strong influence over them and has used it effectively 
in completely checking head-hunting raids against the Christian and 
Negrito inhabitants of the lowlands of Cagayan. Head-hunting expedi- 
tions have ceased to go out from Tauit, Burayutan, Guenned and Uaga 
and are rapidly becoming rare in parts of the eastern and central 
mountain regions of the subprovince. 

It is now safe to transfer the capital to Magapta, which occupies a 
good strategic position at the point of union of the three most important 
branches of the Abulug Eiver. 

A Constabulary post will also be established in the near future 
at Talifugo where it will be easy to cut the regular line of march 
along which the people from the settlements of central Apayao go to 
attack those of the southern part of the subprovince. It is hoped that 
within another year instances of head taking will have become rare, 



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although with the inhabitants of this region the occurrence of a death 
from any cause is considered a reason for the taking of one or more heads, 
so that the custom will doubtless die hard. 

On the other hand the people of Apayao have many good qualities. 
They are physically well developed and are quite cleanly. They possess 
a high degree of intelligence. They erect beautifully constructed houses. 
Their women are well clothed and both men and women love handsome 
ornaments. They are quite industrious agriculturists and are now beg- 
ging for seed and for domestic animals in order that they may emulate 
their Christian neighbors in the raising of agricultural products. 

Seed and a limited number of animals will be furnished them and 
there will be opened for their benefit an exchange where they can market 
their produce and purchase at moderate cost the commodities which they 
most need. 

It is proposed to employ some 1^3,700 in clearing the Abulug Kiver of 
dangerous obstructions, at least as far up as Magapta, and to build a 
trail from that place to Talifugo. 

BAGUIO-SUYOC TRAIL. 

Eeference was made in the last annual report of the Secretary of the 
Interior to the necessity for a trail connecting Baguio in Benguet with 
Suyoc in the mineral region of southern Lepanto and following the crest 
of the mountain range so as to avoid all rivers and furnish a direct line 
of communication not liable to interruption during the rainy season. 
During the past nine months work has been pushed on this trail with 
great energy both from the south and the north and at the present time 
the two ends are but a few miles apart. 

Starting at an altitude of 4,700 feet, this trail rises gradually to a 
height of 7,200 feet and then as gradually falls to 5,000 feet. It passes 
above the pine belt and extends for a considerable distance through oak 
forests in a region where frosts are of nightly occurrence for weeks at 
a time and where many fruits and vegetables of the temperate zone can 
be grown to good advantage. The grade is everywhere low, in many 
places not more than 3 per cent. Side trails give connection between 
this trail and the Igorot settlements at lower levels and it is already 
serving as a main line of communication between the north country and 
Baguio. 

ESTABLISHMENT OF THE MOUNTAIN PROVINCE. 

At the close of the fiscal year ending June 30, 1908, the subprovinces 
of Amburayan, Lepanto, Bontoc and Kalinga collectively formed the 
Province of Lepanto-Bontoc. The Ifugao country was a part of the 
Province of Nueva Vizcaya and Apayao was a subprovince of Cagayan. 

It had proved impracticable for the governor of Nueva Yizcaya 
personally to familiarize himself with the conditions throughout the 
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country of the Ifugaos or to spend the necessary time among those people 
to get into close touch with them and to win the control over them which 
can be obtained only by personal influence. Lieutenant Gallman, of 
the Constabulary, was in fact discharging the duties of a lieutenant-gov- 
ernor in this region, with no legal authority to do so, and his transfer to 
some other part of the Archipelago might have resulted in the early 
undoing of the results of five years of patient work. Furthermore, the 
opening up of the Polis Mountain trail had brought the Ifugao country 
into closer touch with Bontoc and with Bayombong, the capital of Nueva 
Vizcaya, and had made it about one-third as expensive to get supplies 
in from Tagudin by way of Bontoc as by way of Dagupan, Tayug and 
Bayombong. The necessity for frequent journeys to Bayombong was 
producing disastrous results among the Ifugaos, many of whom sickened 
and even died as the result of trips into the hot lowlands. 

Cervantes had ceased to be a geographically suitable site for the capital 
of Lepanto-Bontoc, as the growth of the province through the addition 
of new territory to the north and east had left this place far to one side 
of the centers of population and of area. It was moreover, and must 
necessarily remain, an unhealthful town. 

The governor of Lepanto-Bontoc was at the same time in effect the 
lieutenant-governor of Lepanto and when he was absent in any other sub- 
province Lepanto was left without a head. The provincial board of 
Cagayan was not familiar with the needs of a wild population and as 
a result affairs did not always go well in the subprovince of Apayao, 
while so long as authority in the wild man's territory in northern Luzon 
was divided between the provincial governors of Benguet, Lepanto- 
Bontoc, Nueva Vizcaya and Cagayan, the establishment and perpetuation 
of a definite and consistent governmental policy in this region was a 
matter of no little difficulty. Finally the subdivision of this region, 
where important engineering projects needed to be carried out, had 
resulted in a corresponding subdivision of funds available for such pro- 
jects and had made it difficult to get enough money together in Benguet 
and Apayao to allow of pushing rapidly to completion any important 
public work. 

These difficulties led the undersigned to recommend to the Commission 
the establishment of a province to be known as the Mountain Province 
and to include as separate subprovinces, each with its lieutenant-governor, 
Benguet, Amburayan, Lepanto, Bontoc, Kalinga, Apayao and the Ifugao 
country of JNTueva Vizcaya, the latter being coextensive with the former 
Spanish comandancia of Quiangan. It was further recommended that 
the capital of the province be at Bontoc, which has a cool and most health- 
ful climate and is the central point from which the main natural lines 
of communication radiate. 



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The Commission approved these recommendations and made them 
effective by Act No. 1876, passed on August 18, 1908. 

Under the new arrangement, with a lieutenant-governor constantly 
present in each subprovince, the governor will be free to go at once to 
any place where his assistance is needed or where he desires to investigate 
conditions. He should, and doubtless will, spend the greater part of 
his time in the saddle traveling over the immense territory which comes 
under his control. He will be able to establish and carry out a fixed 
policy throughout the entire extent of this great mountain region, which 
extends from the southern boundary of Benguet to the extreme northern 
end of Luzon, and will be sufficiently familiar with conditions in each 
subprovince so that in the event of the death, resignation or removal of 
a lieutenant-governor he can immediately assume control. 

The total fund accruing to the Mountain Province on the basis of 
its population will be considerable and will make possible the inaugura- 
tion and the fairly prompt completion of important improvements, first 
among which must come the opening of additional lines of communica- 
tion, especially in the subprovinces of Kalinga and Apayao. 

It is believed that this reorganization is the most important forward 
step yet made in establishing law and order and bringing about a general 
improvement of conditions throughout the northern mountain region of 
Luzon. 

TRANSFER OF ILONGOT COUNTRY TO NUEVA VIZCAYA. 

The territory inhabited by the Ilongots was in part included within 
the limits of Nueva Vizcaya, while other parts of it lay in the Provinces 
of Nueva Ecija, Pangasinan, Tayabas and Isabela. Only in Nueva Viz- 
caya had any effort been made to bring these very troublesome wards of 
the government under control, and as the four other regions referred to 
are all contiguous to Nueva Vizcaya, the undersigned recommended that 
they be added to the latter province. 

ESTABLISHMENT OF A PRISON AT B0NT0C. 

Experience having shown that the sending of wild men from the Luzon 
highlands to Bilibid Prison at Manila was, in most instances, equivalent 
to a death sentence, the undersigned further recommended the establish- 
ment of a prison at Bontoc, where prisoners could be confined under what 
would be to them more normal conditions and where they could be taught 
carpentry, basket making and other useful employments. Both this rec- 
ommendation and that relative to the transfer of the Ilongot country 
to Nueva Vizcaya were approved and were put into effect by the act above 
mentioned. 



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CONTEMPLATED IMPROVEMENTS IN THE MOUNTAIN PROVINCE. 

During the present year it is proposed to complete the hill trail be- 
tween Bagnio and Suyoc, to construct a new low grade trail 35 miles 
long from Cervantes to Bontoc, to construct a trail 32 miles long from 
Banaue to the north through the Ifugao country to Mayoyao and Bunsian, 
to complete the Tabuc trail, to stake out a trail down the Saltan Eiver 
Valley which the inhabitants have undertaken to construct if given a 
line on which to work, to begin a trail extending from near Malaueg to 
Magapta in Apayao, to build a trail from Balbalasan to the northern 
Tingian rancherias in Abra, to bridge the Abra Eiver at Cervantes, to 
blow the dangerous rocks out of the Abulug Eiver at least as far up as 
Magapta, to construct telephone lines from Bontoc to Lubuagan and 
to Banaue, and to erect necessary provincial buildings at Bontoc and 
Tagudin. 

MURDER OF AMERICANS BY NON-CHRISTIANS. 

During the month of May, Harry M. Ickis, a mining engineer in 
the employ of the division of mines of the Bureau of Science, was 
murdered by Manobos in the almost inaccessible mountains lying on 
the border line between the subprovince of Bukidnon and the subprovince 
of Butuan. Only a few weeks later, before news of this unfortunate 
event had reached Manila, Mr. H. E. Everett, a forester in the employ 
of the Bureau of Forestry, and Mr. Tilden E. Wakely, a teacher in the 
employ of the Bureau of Education, with three Filipino companions, 
were murdered while asleep in the mountains of eastern Negros by a 
"Montesco" chief. 

Both of these crimes were entirely unprovoked. The first seems to 
have been due to the fact that the principal actor had grown tired of 
serving as a carrier for Mr. Ickis and at the same time had a vague 
idea of getting square with the white race because his father had been 
imprisoned by the Spaniards fifteen years before, while in the case of 
Messrs. Everett and Wakely the criminal "felt like killing some one" 
and therefore murdered them in their sleep. 

These two deplorable events, the first of their kind since American 
occupation, show that we have been overconfident in our belief that 
the wild people of the mountains are invariably harmless when kindly 
and fairly treated. Fortunately Government control has been extended 
to the region where Mr. Ickis was murdered and several of those 
concerned in his death are already in custody, while the others are 
being ceaselessly pursued. Climatic conditions make it impossible to 
operate against the murderers of Messrs. Everett and Wakely until 
October or November, but the fact that such a crime can occur and 
remain unknown for weeks in the interior of the Island of Negros, and 
that punishment must be delayed for months owing to the impracti- 
cability of entering this region during the rainy season, emphasizes the 



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necessity of extending as soon as practicable to the interior of Negros 
the policy which has already resulted in making most of the territory of 
the Mountain Province entirely safe. 

THE BUREAU OF HEALTH. 

The report of the Director of Health for the previous fiscal year was 
commented upon quite freely both by the medical and the lay press and 
as a result of its publication the Director of Health has received so 
many letters of inquiry that it has been impossible for him to answer 
them all individually. 

In his report for the present year he therefore takes opportunity to 
furnish the information requested in many of these letters and to give 
a general statement of the health conditions in the Philippine Islands 
and of the sanitary work accomplished under the American regime which 
is so comprehensive and at the same time so concise that the undersigned 
does not feel like attempting to abstract, or further to condense it, but 
deems it wiser to refer those interested to the original document which 
will be printed for separate distribution. 

THE PHILIPPINE GENERAL HOSPITAL. 

The construction of the Philippine General Hospital, for which 
f*780,000 was appropriated in the bill for the previous fiscal year, has 
been delayed pending the final completion of plans and the receipt of 
bids. The plans have now been perfected and reasonably satisfactory 
bids have been received. The hospital will consist of an administration 
building and five two-story separate ward pavilions with a capacity of 
thirty patients upon each floor, a building for surgical work and separate 
buildings for kitchen, nurses' home, free dispensary and out-clinic, 
ambulance stable and morgue. Abundant room is available for the 
erection of additional ward pavilions as required. The undersigned 
had the pleasure of laying the corner stone of this hospital on March 2, 
1908. 

THE BAGUIO HOSPITAL. 

The new building is now occupied although it is in some respects still 
incomplete. It is on a site commanding a magnificent view, swept by 
constant breezes and fully exposed to the sunshine the need of which 
is constantly felt in the cool highlands of Benguet. The building has 
ample accommodations for thirty patients in its wards and for fourteen 
patients in private rooms. The need for it was most urgent as con- 
ditions arising from the overcrowding of the old building had become 
unbearable and it had been necessary to provide accommodation for a 
number of patients in tents. This arrangement, while fairly satis- 
factory during the dry season, would be impossible in July, August 
and September. 



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NEW PRIVATE HOSPITALS. 

The University Hospital, conducted under the auspices of the Prot- 
estant Episcopal Church of America, has been completed and opened to 
the public. It affords accommodations for twenty-five charity patients 
and ten pay or private-room patients. It is situated at the center of one 
of the poorest sections of Manila and is kept constantly full. More than 
2,500 out patients are treated monthly at its dispensary. The Bureau 
of Health furnishes the greater part of the medicines used by it for the 
indigent poor. 

The mission service of the Methodist Church has opened a fifty-bed 
hospital for women and children, known as the Mary J. Johnston Me- 
morial Hospital. The building is located on the Tondo beach in the 
midst of a district inhabited by the most destitute people of Manila and 
this institutions will largely confine its work to the very poor. The 
Bureau of Health supplies a portion of the medicines which it uses in 
its charitable work. 

PHILIPPINE ISLANDS MEDICAL ASSOCIATION. 

The most important session of this association ever held took place 
on February 26, 27, 28 and 29, 1908. Among the foreign delegates 
there were present — 

Dr. R. D. Keith, physiologist and assistant pathologist, Straits and Federated 
Malay States Medical School; delegate from the Straits Settlements. 

Dr. Francis Clark, medical officer of health, and delegate from His Britannic 
Majesty's Colony of Hongkong. 

Prof. Taichi Kitajima, M. D., of the Infectious Diseases Institute, delegate 
from His Imperial Japanese Majesty's Government. 

Dr. Cheng Hao, delegate from His Imperial Chinese Majesty's Government. 

Sir Allen Perry, the honorable principal civil medical officer of Ceylon, and 
delegate from Ceylon. 

Prof. T. Ishigami, M. D., of the Ishigami Institute for Infectious Diseases, 
Osaka, Japan. 

Dr. Hays, delegate from Siam. 

Lieutenant Tyley, R. S. M. C, Hongkong. 

Dr. Vassal, of the Institute Pasteur, Nhatrang, Annam, delegate from Indo- 
China. 

Dr. H. Fraser, of the Institute for Medical Research, Kuala Lumpur, delegate 
from the Federated Malay States. 

The importance of the opportunity thus afforded for conference as to 
sanitary methods and results between such distinguished experts can 
hardly be overestimated. As a direct result of this meeting there was 
organized the "Far Eastern Medical Association" which will have its 
first meeting at Manila in 1910. 



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SANITARY STATISTICS FOR MANILA. 

It is believed that the sanitary statistics for Manila are now ap- 
proximately correct except for births. Three years ago not more than 
40 per cent of the actual births were reported to the Bureau of Health. 
At the present time about 75 per cent are reported. 

INCREASE IN POPULATION. 

So far as can be judged from the statistics and other information 
available the population of the Islands was substantially stationary 
during the latter years of Spanish rule and the following period of war 
and pestilence, but for the past three or four years the number of people 
has increased at a satisfactory ratio throughout the Archipelago. In this 
connection a comparison of the number of persons recently vaccinated 
by the Bureau of Health in certain provinces with the number of in- 
habitants reported for such provinces by the official census of 1903 is 
interesting : 



Name of province. 



Tarlac ___. 

Cebu 

Sorsogon . 



Census 
popula- 
tion. 



113, 513 
653, 729 
120, 454 



Number 
of persons 
vacci- 
nated. 



155,679 
744,314 
128,366 



As the Bureau of Health can not have vaccinated all of the people in 
any one of these provinces it is evident that there has been a material 
increase in the population of each. 

IMPROVEMENTS AT SIBUL SPRINGS. 

It is definitely known that the waters of Sibul Springs which were 
formerly quite extensively used, are very beneficial when taken internally 
by persons afflicted with diseases of the intestinal tract especially those of 
a chronic catarrhal nature, and that bathing in these waters is very 
refreshing and apparently of considerable value as an aid to the cure of 
the diseases for which their drinking is indicated. Access to the springs 
was difficult during the dry season and almost impossible after the rains 
set in, but the Insular Government has now completed a good road to 
them from San Miguel de Mayumo. 

When the undersigned visited them in November, 1907, it was found 
that both the springs and the baths connected with them were in a state 
of complete abandonment. It seemed probable that the waters were suf- 
fering direct contamination from neighboring carabao wallows and were 



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unsafe for drinking purposes. Laboratory examination proved this to 
be the case and funds were at once made available for safeguarding the 
springs from contamination and for renovating and enlarging the baths. 
The work provided for has been completed and recent examinations 
have shown that the waters are now free from amoebae and other dan- 
gerous animal and plant organisms. Their sale by druggists has been 
renewed and their use at the springs has been greatly facilitated. The 
Philippine Legislature has appropriated f*l 0,000 for further improve- 
ments of the springs and their immediate surroundings. 

ARTESIAN WELLS. 

The work of boring artesian wells in provincial towns steadily con- 
tinues. In a number of instances the death rate has fallen 50 per cent 
in towns where such wells have been sunk and the importance of impure 
water as a source of disease in these Islands has thus been conclusively 
demonstrated. 

ADMINISTRATION OF THE FOOD AND DRUGS ACT. 

The examinations of foods made in connection with the administration 
of the Food and Drugs Act have revealed such a condition of affairs as to 
suggest that much of the illness which has heretofore been ascribed to the 
tropical climate of the Philippines was due rather to chemicals added 
to preserved foods intended for use in these Islands than to any directly 
injurious effect of the climate itself. 

There were examined during the year 896 samples of food and drug 
products of which 89 were absolutely rejected and 172, which were 
misbranded, were released after being properly relabeled. Many impor- 
tations were subsequently either denied admittance or admitted only 
after they had been relabeled because they were goods of the same kinds 
as those already passed upon as a result of previous analyses. There 
have been very few willful evasions of the law, and with one noteworthy 
exception, the merchants of the Philippines have shown a highly com- 
mendable spirit in accepting philosophically losses necessarily imposed 
upon them through the rejection of importations made in good faith, as 
well as in their efforts to comply with the law. 

FREE DISPENSARIES. 

The Bureau of Health has maintained a dispensary at its central 
office, another at San Lazaro Hospital, a third at the Civil Hospital, and 
five smaller ones in connection with the five health stations in Manila. 
The Bureau has supplied St. Luke's Hospital, St. Paul's Hospital, the 
University Hospital, the Methodist Hospital and the Philippine Medical 
School Dispensary with considerable quantities of drugs to be used for 
the benefit of the poor while the liberal free distribution of quinin^ in 
fever-smitten regions has afforded relief to a large number of sufferers. 



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MEDICAL INSPECTION OF SCHOOLS. 

The cost of the medical inspection of the schools of Manila is now 
defrayed by the Bureau of Education. The work has been steadily pros- 
ecuted throughout the year with the result that 3,300 cases have been 
recommended for treatment. For the most part these have been cared 
for at the health stations of the Bureau of Health and at the Civil 
Hospital, St. Paul's Hospital and the University Hospital. 

ADMINISTRATION OF PUBLIC CHARITIES. 

Funds to the extent of some !P80,000 are appropriated annually for 
the maintenance of public charities administered by the Bureau of Health. 
This amount provides clothing, lodging and subsistence for more than 
400 unfortunates and makes possible the furnishing of outside relief to 
some thousands of others. The medical officers of the Bureau of Health 
have charge of the admission of patients to 150 free beds provided by 
the Municipal Board and the Philippine Medical School at the San Juan 
de Dios and St. Paul's Hospitals. 

MEDICAL EXAMINATION OF IMMIGRANTS. 

The satisfactory working of the system which provides for the medical 
examination of many of our immigrants at their ports of departure is 
shown by the fact that of the 7,864 examined on arrival it was necessary 
to reject only 51. Most of these rejections were on account of a virulent 
form of trachoma which is almost unknown in these Islands and which 
it is very desirable to keep out. 

VACCINATION. 

One million six hundred eighty-six thousand seven hundred and 
sixty-seven persons were vaccinated against smallpox. The administra- 
tion of this work has been so improved that its cost is now approxi- 
mately 2% centavos per capita as against 7£ eentavos a few years since. 
It is a remarkable fact, and one which bears eloquent testimony to the 
care used by the Bureau of Science in manufacturing vaccine, and by the 
Bureau of Health in using it, that not a single death has occurred as a 
result of this enormous number of vaccinations, especially when the 
results obtained in other countries under more favorable conditions are 
considered. In Germany, for instance, it is stated on reliable authority 
that there is an average of one death for each 65,000 vaccinations. 

Little opposition is now encountered and the chief difficulty in vacci- 
nating the entire population of the Philippines arises from the physical 
impossibility of keeping virus active until it can reach and be used in 
the more inaccessible portions of the Archipelago. The Director of 
Health while in the United States will investigate the possibility of obtain- 
ing light portable refrigerating plants for keeping vaccine cool during 
long periods. 



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Between the months of November and March frequent complaints 
were received from provincial vaccinators that they were not getting the 
usual or proper number of "takes." As neither the Bureau of Health 
nor the Bureau of Science could offer any adequate explanation of the 
difficulty, and as the importance of keeping the vaccine active until it 
could be used was apparent, the undersigned deemed it desirable to ap- 
point a committee composed of Dr. Eichard P. Strong, Director of the 
Biological Laboratory of the Bureau of Science; Dr. Paul Clements, 
of the Bureau of Health, who had long been connected with provincial 
vaccinations and was thoroughly conversant with the methods employed, 
and Dr. Philip K. Gilman, of the Philippine Medical School, who was 
not connected with either Bureau and who was named chairman of the 
committee. The following instructions were given to each member : 

"Baguio, Benguet, April 23, 1908. 

"Sir: In view of the difficulty which has recently arisen in securing in the 
provinces a satisfactory percentage of takes with the vaccine virus prepared by the 
Bureau of Science, and of the failure of the efforts of the Director of the Bureau of 
Science and of the Director of the Bureau of Health to find a satisfactory explana- 
tion of the results secured; and in view of the great importance of manufacturing 
the best possible vaccine virus and of employing the best possible methods in its 
preservation and use, both in Manila and in the provinces, I have thought it best to 
appoint a committee consisting of Dr. Philip K. Gilman, Dr. Richard P. Strong and 
Dr. Paul Clements, to go into the whole question of the methods at present employed 
in the manufacture, preservation and use of vaccine virus, with a view to determin- 
ing, if practicable, what is the cause of the difficulty which has recently arisen, and 
what methods should be employed in the manufacture, preservation and use of 
vaccine virus in order that the virus may be of the best possible quality, may be 
successfully preserved for the longest possible time, and may be used in such a way 
as to produce the best possible results. 

"To this end the committee should study and report upon : 

"1. The method of manufacturing, preserving, testing and delivering vaccine 
virus employed by the Bureau of Science; also the length of time virus is kept by 
the Bureau of Science before being delivered to the Bureau of Health. 

"2. The methods of storing«and shipping virus employed by the Bureau of Health 
and the length of time during which virus is kept by the Bureau of Health before 
being shipped. 

"3. The methods of preserving and using the virus employed by vaccinators in 
the provinces. Special attention should be given to the question whether the virus 
is under ordinary circumstances exposed to the sun, and if so, for how long. 

"4. The methods employed in making vaccinations in the provinces, and the 
possibility of removal of vaccine by persons freshly vaccinated so as to prevent its 
taking. As a check upon the possible removal of vaccine by persons vaccinated, 
I suggest that some small animals be taken into the provinces and that the actual 
potency of vaccine virus which is not giving satisfactory results on human beings 
be determined by experiment. Animal experiments should also be employed to 
determine the potency of the vaccine which has been kept under the usual conditions 
for varying periods by the Bureau of Science and the Bureau of Health, to determine 
whether there is any deterioration. At the same time a series of experiments 
should be carried on to determine how quickly vaccine virus, found to be good, 
will deteriorate to the point of becoming useless if exposed to the sun, and how 
soon it will deteriorate under ordinary temperature in the shade or within such 



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receptacles as are ordinarily employed in the provinces in preserving it after ice 
has given out. 

"I suggest that as little as possible be said relative to the appointment and work 
of this committee, to the end that the investigations as to the methods of preserving 
virus and conducting vaccinations in the provinces may be examined into without 
any previous intimation that such an examination is to be made, in order that the 
conditions found may be those which have existed during the past few months. 
"Very respectfully, 

"Dean C. Worcester, Secretary of the Interior." 

The committee has completed its work in the city of Manila and at 
my request has rendered a preliminary report thereon in order that its 
recommendations might be put into effect as soon as possible. -It has 
found that virus kept in an ice-box at a temperature of 10° 0. was still 
active after seven weeks and the experiment is being continued. The 
period of potency for virus kept in the dark at ordinary room temperature 
was not usually more than one week, while that kept in a dark room at 
a temperature of 37° C. sometimes became entirely inert after twenty- 
four to forty-eight hours. The period of potency for virus exposed to 
the direct sunlight, the virus used being previously active and fresh, is 
from twenty-four to forty-eight hours, the potency being entirely de- 
stroyed in that time. 

The committee reached the following conclusions : 

"1. The method of manufacturing, preserving and testing vaccine virus employed 
by the biological laboratory of the Bureau of Science is in acordance with the most 
approved modern procedures, and after a study of the recent literature on the 
subject and a consideration of the methods employed in other countries in the 
manufacture of vaccine virus, we have nothing to suggest in the way of improvement. 

"2. In regard to the length of time the virus is kept by the Bureau of Science 
before sending it out, we believe that a period of at least one week should elapse 
between the date the virus is manufactured and the date it is sent out. This time 
should elapse in order that the majority of the saphrophytic bacteria, always 
present in the virus, may be destroyed by the action of the glycerin added to the 
lymph and the necessary tests of the purity of the vaccine be performed. While 
at the temperature of cold storage (10° C.) virus has been repeatedly shown to be 
potent after five months, we should recommend that virus over one month old be 
not sent out. This recommendation is made because it is a well-established fact 
that sudden variations in temperature exert a very unfavorable influence on the 
virus. Such variation of temperature must occur in the virus when it is delivered 
to the Bureau of Health and especially when it is shipped to the provinces, and 
therefore, virus as fresh as possible should be obtained for this purpose. 

"3. In regard to the method of storing and shipping virus employed by the 
Bureau of Health, your Committee believes that some improvement might be made 
on the method of obtaining the virus from the Bureau of Science, namely, that 
instead of sending it by hand, one of the specially devised ice-boxes used for sending 
virus to the provinces be sent to the Bureau of Science, in which box the virus 
may be placed on ice during its transit to the Bureau of Health. Furthermore, 
the temperature at which the virus is stored at the Bureau of Health should not 
be over 15° C. Your committee has found upon investigation that in the past the 
virus has been kept at a temperature of 25° C. or over, for periods of as long as 
ten days, there being but 10 pounds of ice supplied daily to the refrigerator. This 



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high temperature has undoubtedly exerted a very unfavorable action, at least on 
the potency of the virus. In regard to the method employed by the Bureau of 
Health in transporting the virus to the provinces, so far as has been observed by 
the committee, we have no improvements to suggest, provided that the virus is 
shipped as promptly as possible after being obtained from the Bureau of Science. 

"Furthermore, your committee recommends that unless the virus can be kept 
at 15° C. at the Bureau of Health, the same Bureau make requisition for virus 
only at the time it is required for immediate delivery and use. 

"4. As it has been very difficult and in some instances impossible to deter- 
mine the special lot of virus used and complained of, it seems to the Com- 
mittee that in the future instructions should be issued to those concerned to 
the effect that any complaints against virus should state the number of 1 the 
virus used and found unsatisfactory. 

"5. In reviewing the complaints against the vaccine made by various persons, 
it becomes evident that there is some diversity of opinion in regard to what 
constitutes a good percentage of "takes" in a series of general vaccinations. 
Your committee believes that 50 per cent of positive results would constitute 
a very good average in general vaccinations. Dr. W. K. Beatty, district health 
officer of the Thirteenth District, who has had occasion to make numerous 
complaints regarding the virus, writes from Nueva Caceres under date of 
June, 1908, reporting a total general average of 53§ per cent, of "takes" in twenty- 
one months of vaccination of 515,071 persons; that is, 275,048 successful cases. 

"There still remains to be investigated by your committee, 3, the methods of 
preserving and using the virus employed by vaccinators in the provinces; 4, the 
methods employed in making vaccinations in the provinces and the possibility 
of removal of vaccine by persons freshly vaccinated to prevent its taking." 

The proper instructions have been given by the undersigned to insure 
the carrying out of the recommendations of this committee and an 
arrangement has been made under which the Bureau of Health will 
ship its virus direct from the cold storage depository of the Bureau of 
Science. 

INSTALLATION OF MANILA SEWER SYSTEM. 

This important work, so intimately connected with the sanitation of 
the city, is nearing completion. Twenty-four and four-tenths miles of 
street sewers have been laid during the year, giving a total of 38.4 miles 
laid and leaving only 13.6 miles of the total contracted for. Pumps 
and pump houses have been contracted for; work on the latter has 
begun, and the entire system should be in working order before the 
close of the fiscal year ending June 30, 1909. Manila will then be the 
only city in the Orient having a complete water carriage system for the 
disposal of its sewage. 

SWEEPING PUBLIC BUILDINGS. 

On account of the prevalence of tuberculosis and of careless habits 
of spitting and the consequent , danger of communicating this disease 
by dried sputum if floors were swept carelessly or while public build- 



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ings were occupied, the Director of Health called the attention of the 
Executive Secretary to the desirability of having floors thoroughly 
sprinkled with wet sawdust before sweeping and of having sweeping 
begin only after buildings were vacated. This procedure is now uni- 
formly followed. 

INFANT MORTALITY IN MANILA. 

A considerable amount of public interest has been aroused in the 
shockingly high infant mortality among the Filipino children of Manila 
and the Director of Health expresses the opinion that as much is now 
being done by the health authorities, by the Gota de Leche Society, by 
the churches, by the schools, by private physicians and by private indi- 
viduals as in any other city of equal size in the world. Nevertheless 
the death rate of infants continues distressingly high and much remains 
to be done. Four thousand four hundred and eighty-four children 
under one year of age have died during the year. These deaths con- 
stitute approximately 44 per cent, of the total number. 

IMPROVEMENT IN AMBULANCE SERVICE. 

The Bureau of Health provides ambulance service for the transporta- 
tion of cases of dangerous, communicable disease, and of cases for the 
Civil Hospital, while the Police Department transports emergency cases. 
Arrangements have been made for further improving facilities by estab- 
lishing a central station near the Bridge of Spain where modern motor- 
car ambulances will be installed. This will result in decreased expense 
and more satisfactory service. 

CHOLERA. 

Asiatic cholera has twice invaded Manila during the year and has 
been present in the provinces, where it has caused serious loss of life. 

In view of various unfounded statements as to the relative frequency 
and importance of cholera epidemics during the period when the Phil- 
ippines were under Spanish rule and that following the American 
occupation, it has seemed to me desirable to go carefully into the 
history of cholera in the Philippines from the date of its earliest 
recorded occurrence to the present time, in order to arrived at a clear 
understanding of the facts and to deduce therefrom such conclusions 
as would seem to be justified. 

This subject has been treated in a special report, which will be for- 
warded to the Commission as soon as certain statistics for the years 
1882 to 1896, inclusive, which are being compiled from the church 
records of the city of Manila, can be completed. 



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HOOKWORM DISEASE. 

It can now be stated with certainty that two important factors are 
primarily responsible for the present high mortality among the Fili- 
pinos. One of these, namely, infant mortality, has already been referred 
to. The other is the presence, in the vast majority of the inhabitants, 
of intestinal parasites, the hookworm being the most dangerous of these. 

An absolute demonstration of the highly prejudicial influence of these 
organisms has been made in Bilibid Prison. 

While the sanitary management of this institution continued under 
the control of the warden the annual death rate steadily increased until 
it reached the appalling figure of 238 per thousand. Sanitary control 
was then transferred to the Director of Health. The application of 
ordinary measures such as relief from overcrowding, improving methods 
for disposition of night soil, bettering trie drainage system, regulating 
diet, etc., resulted in bringing the mortality down to some 70 per 
thousand, after which further progress could not be made. It was 
observed that patients were dying of illnesses which should not have 
killed them and this led to a systematic examination of the stools of all 
prisoners. Eighty-four per cent, were found to be infected with at least 
one kind of intestinal parasite, 50 per cent, had two or more and 20 per 
cent, had three or more. Fifty-two per cent, had hookworms. Treat- 
ment was successfully undertaken for the removal of these parasites after 
which the death rate steadily fell until it reached the very low figure of 
13 per thousand. Proper steps having been taken to prevent reinfection, 
the death rate has continued low. 

More than a thousand stool examinations made of persons living 
throughout the Islands show that the condition of affairs in Bilibid was 
fairly typical of that which prevails generally. Were it possible to apply 
the measures which have proved so effective in Bilibid, an enormous im- 
provement in health conditions would unquestionably result. While 
this is impracticable, it is nevertheless apparent to everyone conversant 
with the situation that a general campaign must be inaugurated for 
ridding the inhabitants of these dangerous organisms which, even in those 
cases where they fail ultimately to cause death, invariably sap the vitality 
of their involuntary hosts causing anaemia, lassitude and great sus- 
ceptibility to attack from a variety of diseases. It is needless to say 
that as soon as the facts became known the situation was given very 
careful consideration by the Director of Health who has formulated a 
carefully considered plan of campaign which would already have been 
inaugurated had not the prevalence of cholera made such heavy demands 
upon the time and energy of his small force. The details of this plan 
will be found set forth in his annual report. 

At the meeting of the Philippine Medical Association heretofore 



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referred to, the discussion of this matter was given an important place 
and the association passed the following resolution : 

"Whereas it appears that the treatment of the prisoners for intestinal worms 
has been an important factor in reducing the death rate at Bilibid Prison; and 

"Whereas it would appear further that over three-fourths of the population of 
the Philippines is at the present time infected with animal parasites ; and 

"Whereas infection with these parasites can be controlled almost absolutely by 
properly disposing of the human excreta which contain the ova of the parasites, and 

"Whereas, The proper disposal of human excreta will at the same time remove 
one of the most dangerous channels for the dissemination of other infectious 
diseases: Therefore, be it 

"Resolved, That the Philippine Islands Medical Association shall petition the 
Government of the Philippine Islands, through the Honorable Dean C. Worcester, 
Secretary of the Interior, that a commission of five properly qualified members be 
appointed to decide upon the most practicable and effectual means for the proper 
disposal of human excreta that can be established in these Islands. 

"Be it further resolved, That the Government of the Philippine Islands be 
petitioned to make such appropriation and provide such amounts for the establish- 
ment of a working system for the disposal of human excreta as from the report of 
this commission may appear practical and expedient." 

LEPROSY. 

The segregation of lepers has steadily continued. Of the 4,000 
estimated to exist only about 1,000 remain to be collected and transported 
to Culion. In the provinces which have now been entirely freed from 
lepers more than 300 new cases of leprosy formerly appeared annually. 
Now not more than 50 new cases appear, which fact alone would more 
than justify the policy of segregation. It can be positively stated that 
not only has the increase in the number of lepers been permanently 
checked but a steady decline has begun and will continue if the present 
policy is adhered to. 

The segregation of lepers at Culion began in May, 1906. At this time 
it was estimated that there were at least 3,500 lepers in the Islands. At 
the end of the first year the estimated number had been reduced to 2,826. 
At the end of the present year it was 2,486. The reduction in the num- 
ber of supposed lepers during the first year resulted largely from the 
discovery that many persons in Samar, Leyte, Masbate, Eomblon and 
Negros had been erroneously classified as lepers when in reality suffering 
from other diseases. One of the beneficent results of the campaign 
against leprosy is that these unfortunates have been restored to their 
rightful social status. During the past year, however, in a number of 
provinces more lepers have been found than had been reported. In Albay 
there were 315 as against 57 reported; in Sorsogon 121 as against 87. 
These increases more than offset the erroneous diagnoses of the previous 
year, and we may state with confidence that at least 300 less persons have 
contracted the disease in the Philippines than during the previous year. 



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The attitude of the people as a whole toward the segregation work has 
been admirable. The separation of husband from wife, parent from 
children, or brother from sister is heartbreaking business, especially 
in these Islands where family ties are very strong, but when the 
necessity for this course has been explained to the unfortunates and to 
their relatives, with rare exceptions they have calmly accepted their hard 
lot and have often furnished valuable and active assistance to the repre- 
sentatives of the law. Once transferred to the colony and accustomed to 
conditions there, those who are not beyond human help at the time of 
their arrival as a rule become healthier, happier, and better satisfied than 
they were in their native provinces. 

Mindoro, Masbate, Eomblon, Capiz, Iloilo, Antique, Oriental and 
Occidental JNegros, Samar, and Leyte, have already been gone over two 
or more times and may be considered free from leprosy. Cebu, 
Bohol, Ambos Camarines, Albay, Batangas, Tayabas, Sorsogon, Benguet, 
Lepanto-Bontoc and Ilocos Sur have been gone over once, but are not 
yet regarded as being free from lepers. Ample provisions have been 
made for continuing this most important work. 

The construction of permanent buildings at the colony has begun. A 
large reenforced-concrete warehouse has been completed and a hundred- 
bed hospital of the same material is being erected. This work has been 
conducted in the face of great difficulties, not the least of which is a 
scarcity of laborers due to fear of leprosy, and under the circumstances 
the progress made is gratifying. 

X-RAY TREATMENT OF LEPROSY. 

In the last annual report mention was made of the twenty-nine lepers 
undergoing X-ray treatment. One was added to this number and the 
results at present stand as follows: Apparently cured, 1; markedly 
improved, 5; improved, 7; condition unchanged, 15; died, 2, one from 
chronic amoebic dysentery, and the other from puerperal infection, death 
having no connection with the X-ray treatment in either case. The 
individual apparently cured was under treatment for eighteen months. 
Bacteriological examinations for the bacilli of leprosy now invariably 
result negatively in his case. 

Five others show practically no signs of the disease but are positive 
microscopically. In seven the tubercules and infiltrations have been 
greatly reduced in size and in the remainder the progress of the disease 
seems to have been arrested. Other treatments for leprosy which have 
been recommended from time to time have been given faithful trial at 
San Lazaro but the results obtained with the X-ray, while far from 
satisfactory, are by far the best yet secured. 



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THE OPIUM HABIT. 

On March 8, 1906, the Philippine Commission after giving careful 
consideration to the report of the special opium committee which for 
nearly two years had been engaged in gathering data in Oriental countries 
where the opium habit is prevalent and in formulating its conclusions, 
enacted a law designed to restrict the sale, and suppress the evils 
resulting from the improper use of opium until March 1, 1908, after 
which date the importation or use of this drug by any person, except for 
medicinal purposes, was prohibited by Act of Congress. This law of 
the Commission was largely successful in restricting the opium habit to 
those who had already acquired it, but a very large majority of these 
individuals continued to indulge themselves up to the last moment when 
they could legally do so. 

There is reason to believe that for some time prior to March 1 unscru- 
pulous persons, probably through the medium of an organized corps of 
instructors, began systematically to teach the use of cocaine to opium 
habitues. There was great danger that one bad habit might thus be 
replaced by another, and the Philippine Legislature on October 10, 1907, 
repealed the first opium act and replaced it by another which embodied 
also the necessary provisions restricting the use of cocaine, alpha or beta 
eucaine or of any derivative or preparation of these drugs or substances. 
Since March 1, the use of opium or cocaine for other than strictly me- 
dicinal purposes has been unlawful and the importation of these drugs 
may be made only by the Government which will not sell them to anyone 
not clearly entitled by law to purchase them. 

The possession of any opium pipe, hypodermic syringe, apparatus, 
instrument, or paraphernalia for the use of opium or of any hypodermic 
syringe for the use of cocaine, alpha or beta eucaine, or any derivative 
or preparation of such drugs or substances, or any other apparatus espe- 
cially designed for using any of the said drugs or substances in or on 
the human body, is deemed prima facie evidence that the person in 
possession of such pipe, hypodermic syringe, apparatus, instrument, 
paraphernalia, or articles, has used some one of such prohibited drugs or 
substances, or the drug or substance for the use of which such apparatus, 
instrument or paraphernalia are especially designed, without the pre- 
scription of a duly licensed and practicing physician, unless such prescrip- 
tion is produced by such person. 

For some time after March 1, conditions among opium users were 
deplorable. Free hospital accommodations had for a long time previous 
been available for those who desired them but had not been made use 
of to any extent. Now the rush was so great that the San Juan de Dios 
Hospital, with which the Government had a contract for the care of 
opium habitues, asked to be released because it lacked proper facilities 
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for guarding and restraining so large a number of frantic persons. 
In order to meet the emergency it proved necessary to utilize the 
wards of the new insane hospital at San Lazaro where pandemonium 
prevailed for some time. The thanks of the undersigned are due, and 
are hereby extended, to the Chinese consul-general and to the Chinese 
Chamber of Commerce for aid in dealing with their people, and to the 
Eev. Mr. Studley who, at great risk to his personal safety, took up his 
residence with these unfortunates and worked unremittingly as a hospital 
attendant for their relief. 

The results obtained at Manila were highly satisfactory. Our ex- 
perience seems to show that the opium-smoking habit is not especially 
difficult to treat, but in treating persons who have become accustomed 
to take the drug by the mouth, or to use it hypodermically, much more 
difficulty is encountered. 

A contract to care for users of opium was made with the Mission 
Hospital at Iloilo and has continued in effect throughout the year with 
very satisfactory results. 

A Government Hospital was opened at Cebu but the combined efforts 
of the provincial board, the district health officer and Eev. Mr. Studley 
failed to overcome the indifference or active opposition of the opium 
victims of that province and of their friends. The hospital was closed 
on May 27 after an unsuccessful career of forty-two days. Users of 
the drug in Cebu are now being actively prosecuted. The total number 
of persons thus far treated is 725 of whom 542 have been discharged 
as cured, 26 have been discharged as improved and the remainder are 
still under treatment. 

The Bureau of Health has imported shoots of Combretum sundaicum, 
which has gained so great a reputation in the treatment of the opium 
habit in India, and will soon be in a position to test this remedy, which 
it will do in the hope that it may prove less severe than the "reduction 
treatment" which has thus far been used with the results above 
mentioned. 

BUBONIC PLAGUE. 

It is a cause for congratulation that the Islands have remained 
entirely free from plague, especially as Hongkong, Amoy and other 
Chinese ports continue to suffer from annually recurring epidemics of 
this disease, which appears in May, reaches its height in June or July 
and then gradually declines until its disappearance in November. One 
case of plague arriving on a steamship was detected and transferred 
to San Lazaro Hospital for' treatment. 

SMALLPOX. 

More cases of smallpox appeared in Manila than during the previous 
year but they were practically confined to the unvaccinated. It is an 
unfortunate fact that the percentage of Americans among this number 



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was large and that several vigorous opponents of vaccination paid for 
their hostile attitude with their lives. 

SLEEPING SICKNESS. 

One case of sleeping sickness has been detected during the year and 
news has been received of another suspected case in the Province of 
Albay, this being the first Philippine record of the ailment. 

TUBERCULOSIS. 

The number of deaths from tuberculosis at Manila was slightly less 
than during the previous year. This is encouraging in view of the 
fact that for several previous years there had been a steady increase in 
deaths from this cause. This disease, though common in the lowlands, 
is almost unknown in such mountain regions as the highlands of 
Benguet. At the present time the only institution for its treatment 
is the Government hospital at Bilibid Prison. Active steps to combat 
it have been limited to the issuance of educational circulars and the 
enactment of proper ordinances in Manila. 

The Filipino people are accustomed to regard it as a necessarily fatal 
ailment and fail to realize that liberal diet and out-of-door life will cure 
a large percentage of the persons suffering from the disease in its earlier 
stages. Actual demonstration is necessary to convince them of this 
fact and the undersigned is of the opinion that a temporary experimental 
tuberculosis hospital should be established in the near future at some 
point near Baguio, Benguet, and that should results justify such a 
course, as would doubtless be the case, a permanent institution should 
be established there as soon as practicable. 

TYPHOID FEVER. 

Eighty-four deaths from typhoid fever have been reported in Manila 
as against sixty-six for the previous year. Although under existing 
conditions the number of cases seems slowly to increase it is believed 
that the completion of the new water system will lessen the danger and 
will probably enable the health authorities to keep it from ever becoming 
epidemic. 

THE BAGUIO HOSPITAL. 

The popularity of this institution has continued to increase. Last 
year the number of patients was 1,371 and this year it has been 2,291, 
an increase of almost 82 per cent. The Igorots are now coming in not 
only from Benguet but from neighboring provinces. 

A detailed review of all new legislation relative to matters affecting 
the public health, and of the work of the Director of Health and of the 
several divisions of his Bureau, will be found in his annual report. 



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NEED OF PROVINCIAL HOSPITALS. 

The complaint has been made, not without some justice, that Manila 
has received more than its fair share of attention at the hands of the 
legislators to the neglect of the provinces which pay their full share of 
taxes. The amount of relievable human suffering which exists in the 
provinces chiefly populated by civilized and Christianized people is un- 
believable if one has not actually seen it, while no practical measures for 
combating or curing disease are known to the non- Christian people and 
with them it is strictly a case of survival of the fittest. 

Nothing has been more useful in gaining the good-will of the more 
wild and warlike tribes than the small amount of medical and surgical 
work which it has been possible to perform heretofore with the limited 
means available. 

Now that the belief so long prevalent in the Philippines that hospitals 
are places where people go to die is passing, the undersigned believes that 
the time is ripe for the establishing of several' provincial hospitals which 
could be operated at moderate cost and would accomplish untold good. 

THE FUTURE POLICY IN HEALTH WORK. 

The undersigned concurs fully in the opinion of the Director of 
Health that the direct road to the goal of permanent low morbidity and 
mortality rates in the Philippine Islands is through vaccination against 
smallpox, prevention of the reintroduction of bubonic plague, improve- 
ment in water supplies, elimination of intestinal parasites, systematic 
warfare against tuberculosis, the eradication of malarial mosquitoes, and 
the controlling of infant mortality by improved hygiene, and he further 
concurs in and makes his own the following recommendations of the 
Director of Health to these ends : 

"1. That in view of the fact that the elimination of the intestinal parasites 
of the residents of the Philippine Islands bids fair to save a large number of 
lives, steps should be taken to accomplish this work and render conditions such 
that reinfection will not occur. To bring this about, a system for the disposal 
of night soil should be inaugurated, preferably by the Oriental method whereby 
this substance is used for fertilizing mulberry trees from which a profit may 
be realized instead of an additional burden upon the tax payers. 

"2. That the sum of 1*25,000 be set aside for building a few small isolating 
pavilions and treating therein a limited number of tubercular cases, and that 
an outdoor dispensary be established in the city of Manila at which only persons 
afflicted with tuberculosis be treated; one of the principal objects of such a 
dispensary to be its use as a means of diffusing knowledge of the home treatment 
of this disease and the precautions that should be taken in order not to infect 
others. 

"3. That at least three provincial hospitals with a capacity of thirty beds 
each be provided; the initial cost of each to be about ^=30,000. 

"4. That a committee of five physicians be naxhed to make a further study 



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of the causes of excessive infant mortality with the view of reducing the death 
rate among infants. 

"5. That an extensive laboratory study be made of cholera, with a view of 
ascertaining the exact cause of the appearance and disappearance of cholera 
spirilli in the Philippine Islands." 

THE QUARANTINE SERVICE. 

Effective quarantine has been maintained against foreign countries 
badly infected with dangerous communicable, disease and so far as is 
known no such disease has been introduced into the Philippines during 
the year. The success which has been had in excluding bubonic plague 
is especially gratifying. 

With the approaching completion at Manila of wharves along which 
deep-sea going merchant vessels may lie, a new danger would confront 
us in the increased facility with which rats might land from infected 
ships were not special measures taken to minimize this risk. The 
structures beneath the floors of these wharves are being made smooth so 
that as little foothold as possible is afforded for rats and the several 
wharves will be connected with the shore by bridges which can be lifted 
at night and at other times when they are not in use so as to prevent 
the escape of rats to the shore. 

IMMIGRATION DIFFICULTIES. 

Beginning with January 1, 1907, the medical provisions of the United 
States immigration laws became applicable to Chinese desiring to enter 
the Islands. At the time this law took effect more than 5,000 Chinese, 
many of whom had resided in the Philippines for thirty years or more, 
were absent on visits to China. When they desired to return a large 
number of them were prevented from doing so because they were af- 
flicted with quarantinable diseases, of which trachoma was the most im- 
portant. Very great hardship was thus worked through the enforced 
separation of many of these men from their families residing in the 
Philippines. Had they not gone to China they would not have been 
molested and many of them doubtless left the Islands in ignorance that 
the fact that they were afflicted with trachoma would prevent their return. 
Chinese from the district of Amoy were particularly affected by this law 
and in March it was estimated that more than 3,000 individuals who 
desired to return to Manila, but had been prevented from doing so, were 
assembled at that port, where there developed a resentment against the 
United States which became increasingly bitter. It was charged that 
many of these would-be immigrants had been unlawfully prevented from 
returning and under the circumstances it seemed best to direct Passed 
Assistant Surgeon Victor G. Heiser to proceed to Amoy with a view to 
ascertaining whether some of the large number of Chinese who had been 



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refused passage on account of trachoma might not be admitted. It was 
found that many of them were suffering from an affliction which re- 
sembled trachoma sufficiently so that their exclusion had not been un- 
natural but that it was nevertheless unjustifiable and these individuals 
were authorized to proceed with their journey. 

Furthermore it was learned that in the past American consuls at Amoy 
had been in the habit of appointing so-called consular surgeons. Definite 
salaries were in some cases paid to these surgeons by the consul who him- 
self then collected fees for medical examination from each alien who 
desired to go to the Philippine Islands or other American territory, the 
aggregate amount thus collected being large. This system is unques- 
tionably open to serve criticism, as is that at present in vogue of having 
the examinations made by private physicians who charge fees therefor 
and who therefore have a direct pecuniary interest in retaining as long 
as possible, and in reexamining as many times as possible, would-be 
immigrants. An effort, therefore, has been made to secure the detail at 
Amoy of a regular officer of the United States Public Health and Marine- 
Hospital Service to make these examinations. As Amoy is one of the 
great bubonic plague centers of the world there exist further and cogent 
reasons for such a detail and it is earnestly hoped that it may be brought 
about during the present year. 

Detailed statistical and other information relative to the work of the 
Quarantine Service will be found in the report of the chief quarantine 
officer. 

BUREAU OF FORESTRY. 

During the year legislation has been enacted authorizing the free 
use of timber, stone and earth from public forest lands by any railway 
company to which a franchise might be given to build a line to Baguio, 
Benguet; providing for the establishing by the Director of Forestry, 
with the approval of the Secretary of the Interior, of communal forests 
for municipalities; authorizing the continued use of the English system 
of measures in the purchase and sale of manufactured lumber in view 
of the fact that most of the sawing machinery imported is graduated 
in this system; and providing for the free cutting and use of certain 
first-group woods in buildings of strong material. 

VISIT OF A REPRESENTATIVE FROM THE FOREST DEPARTMENT OF JAVA. 

As a result of a brief visit of Dr. Treub, who is in charge of the agricul- 
tural, botanical and forests departments* of the Javan Government at 
Buitenzorg, Mr. Paul Kerbert, a forester of the Javan Government, was 
sent to the Philippines to study the methods used in the conservation 
and development of our forest resources and more especially to investigate 
steam logging. Every possible facility for observation was extended 



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to Mr. Kerbert and after his return he recommended to the Javan Gov- 
ernment that it purchase two American logging donkey engines and em- 
ploy an American expert logger to direct their operation in the teak 
forests of Java; also that the Javan Government endeavor to secure 
four trained American foresters from the Philippine Bureau of Forestry 
to carry on explorations of the forests of Sumatra. 

FORESTRY INVESTIGATIONS IN THE AGUSAN RIVER VALLEY. 

Investigations by Forester W. I. Hutchinson of a tract of 2,000 square 
miles bounded by the Agusan, Tagabaca and Gibong Kivers and the 
eastern mountain chain of Mindanao show that all but about ' 27,000 
acres are timberland and that more than 80 per cent, of the timber is 
soft wood such as is now being logged profitably in northern Negros. 

EMPLOYMENT OF IGOROT FIRE WARDENS IN NORTHERN LUZON. 

Quite satisfactory results in checking the disastrous grass fires which 
sweep over the mountains of northern Luzon during the dry season 
have been obtained through the appointment of Igorot fire wardens, 
who take great pride in their office and who have proved to be energetic, 
faithful and efficient employees. 

INSPECTION OF PUBLIC LANDS. 

The Bureau has inspected 2,583 parcels of public land to determine 
their character and all but 52 have been certified as more valuable 
for agricultural than for forestry purposes. 

INSTRUCTION OF FILIPINO EMPLOYEES. 

A systematic effort is being made to increase the efficiency of the Fili- 
pinos employed in the field by the Bureau of Forestry. This force was 
convened at Manila at the close of the annual foresters' conference and 
a practical school of instruction was organized for its benefit on the 
Lamao forest reserve. At its close an examination will be held and all 
employees will receive definite ratings. 

FOREST MAPS. 

The work of mapping the forest areas in the Philippines has been 
vigorously pushed and has been completed for very large areas in central 
and southern Luzon, Mindoro and the Zamboanga Peninsula of Min- 
danao. Isolated areas in other parts of the Islands have been mapped. 
A detailed map has been made of the tract of the Port Banga Lumber 
Company, in Zamboanga, which covers an area of one hundred and thirty- 
seven square miles. 



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MUSEUM AND HERBARIUM COLLECTIONS. 

Both the total number of wood samples and the number of forest 
species represented have been greatly increased. There are now 2,285 
wood samples representing 486 species. This collection and the botanical 
specimens and microscopic sections of wood prepared by the Bureau of 
Science render the proper identification of a large number of arboreal 
species easy and certain. The Bureau of Forestry has added steadily to 
the herbarium specimens of the Bureau of Science turning over more 
than 4,089 numbers during the year. 

Some 2,283 species have now been identified. The whole of America 
north of Mexico contains only about 640 tree species. On 17 square 
miles of the Lanao forest reserve alone 548 species have been found. 

DURABILITY TESTS OF WOODS. 

One hundred and fifty-six durability tests, conducted with a special 
view to ascertaining the durability of different woods in resisting the 
attacks of fungi and white ants, are now in progress. 

MUSEUM SPECIMENS. 

The museum specimens of the Bureau of Forestry number 7,572, 
illustrating floor, shelf, hand and plank specimens of wood; also resins, 
gums, wood oils, gutta-percha, rubber, tanbark, dyebark and other barks, 
bamboos, bejucos (rattans), fruits and seeds of trees as well as articles 
manufactured from forest products. The limited amount of space 
available makes the proper exhibition of these valuable specimens im- 
possible and provision is now being made for displaying them in the 
Anloague building, where a museum is being established under the cus- 
tody of the Bureau of Science. 

TIMBER-TESTING LABORATORY. 

The timber-testing laboratory has been without a manager during the 
year and its work has therefore temporarily come to a standstill. 

INVESTIGATIONS IN MINDORO. 

In connection with its fieldwork in Mindoro the Bureau of Forestry 
has been able to secure data showing the possibility of building a road 
through the rich, undeveloped agricultural region lying between the 
foothills of the Mount Halcon Kange and the east coast. The proposed 
road would open hundreds of thousands of acres of the richest agricultural 
land in the Philippines and it is hoped that work upon it may be begun 
in the near future. 

Further details of the work of the Forestry Bureau together with 
statistics as to business done in lumber and other forest products during 
the year will be found in the report of its Director. 



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THE BUREAU OF SCIENCE. 

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE BUREAU OF SCIENCE AND THE 
PHILIPPINE MEDICAL SCHOOL. 

The close relationship which exists between the Bureau of Science 
and the Philippine Medical School is likely to render necessary, in 
the near future, some readjustment between the officers and employees 
in the two institutions. The Director of the Bureau, Doctors Strong, 
Musgrave, Marshall, Garrison, Buediger and Messrs. Bosario and Clegg 
have all been active members of the faculty of the Medical School and 
have devoted much time to its interests. The results have been very 
satisfactory so far as regards the School, but the regular work of the 
Bureau has necessarily suffered to some extent. 

With the completion of the new general hospital buildings and the 
opening of the doors of that institution it will, of course, be necessary 
to organize a hospital staff, as no single physician and surgeon, however 
competent and tireless, could properl}' attend to the work of such an 
institution. 

Many members of the faculty of the Medical School will require the 
laboratory facilities of the Bureau of Science for themselves and for 
their advanced students, while officers and employees of the Bureau of 
Science will doubtless continue to give instruction in the Medical 
School. The central scientific library now connected with the Bureau 
of Science will necessarily serve as a medical library for the school. 
The biological staff of the Bureau of Science will need to have access 
to the pathological material from the hospital while members of the 
clinical staff of the hospital will wish to pursue laboratory investigations. 
The faculty of the Medical School will desire to take their students into 
the hospital in order to give them practical instruction. It is evident 
therefore that the relationship beween the three institutions will neces- 
sarily be of the most intimate character, and that each will profit by the 
close proximity of both the others. However, the satisfactory division 
of duties between the members of their staffs is a matter which will 
require careful consideration. 

THE SECURING OF TRAINED MEN FOR THE BUREAU OF SCIENCE. 

The securing of trained men for the work of this Bureau continues 
to offer some difficulties, although these have materially diminished 
since the force was reorganized and most of the positions now author- 
ized are filled. It would, however, be far more satisfactory if we were 
able to secure competent employees who are residents of this country 
instead of obtaining them from the United States and Europe. It is 
believed that with the return of Government students from the United 
States this will become possible to some extent and that a number of 
positions should be provided which may be filled by returning Filipino 



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students with good biological or chemical training while they are gain- 
ing necessary practical experience and increased knowledge under the 
direction of the highly trained men now employed, whose places they 
would ultimately take as the present incumbents were promoted or 
left the service. While this policy would involve some additional 
expense at the outset there can be no doubt that it would ultimately 
result in economy. 

Promotions would probably be fairly rapid in the case of those who 
showed themselves worthy of it, for the reason that the highest salaries 
paid by the Bureau of Science are materially less than many of those paid 
to well trained men in the United States and Europe. We have learned 
to our sorrow that many of our best men are ultimately called to positions 
which are financially more profitable than any we can offer them. Our 
ability to retain them as long as we do finds its explanation in the very 
exceptional opportunities for original scientific investigation which the 
service in the Bureau of Science affords. 

THE CEMENT-TESTING LABORATORY. 

There has been a remarkable increase in the demands for cement tests. 
During the previous fiscal year only about twenty-four samples were 
tested but during the last seven months of the present year more than 
twelve hundred tests were made. This necessitated the providing of 
increased facilities. One of the outbuildings of the Bureau has been 
converted into a well-equipped cement testing laboratory to which the city 
of Manila and the Bureau of Public Works are now sending all of their 
samples. The city has contributed its testing apparatus. The Insular 
Purchasing Agent's office and the port works of Manila are the only offices 
of the Civil Government which do not now send their cement work to this 
laboratory and the undersigned is of the opinion that in the interest of 
economy, efficiency and uniformity of tests they should be required to 
do so. 

To the claim of these offices that their work is now done by employees 
"when not doing anything else" and consequently costs them practically 
nothing, it may be replied that these employees might be doing something 
else if not engaged in making cement tests and that the tests do actually 
cost the value of the time of the employees making them, whatever that 
may be, plus depreciation on the plant employed and interest on the 
money invested in it. It is now the well-established policy of this 
Government to centralize its work so far as practicable. Were all cement 
tests made by the Bureau of Science the cost for from 200 to 325 
samples per month would be 1*3.50 each while that for 326 to 500 
samples per month would be f*2 each, the price per sample increasing 
rapidly if less than 200 samples were tested, as the highest paid employee 
would need to be retained and only laborers could be dispensed with. 



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THE PRODUCER-GAS PLANT. 

The producer-gas plant, for which appropriation was made, has not 
been installed owing to the illness of Mr. Grilkerson, the engineer of 
the Bureau of Science, who was in charge of the perfection of plans 
and specifications. 

As it is a well-known fact that the highest efficiency may be obtained 
from gas by exploding it in the cylinders of a properly constructed 
gas engine rather than by using it as a combustible to produce steam, 
and as the completion of the new hospital building and the new Medical 
School building, which will both doubtless depend for light and power 
on the Bureau of Science plant, will involve the installation of an 
additional engine, it will be economical to install a gas engine in 
connection with the producer-gas plant. 

THE PHILIPPINE MUSEUM. 

Very valuable and interesting ethnological collections have been in- 
stalled and are now on exhibition in the second story of the Anloague 
building. The Bureau of Public Works has vacated the first floor of 
this building and funds have been made available to prepare it for 
museum purposes. A part of the additional space thus gained will 
be used for the exhibition of the museum specimens of the Bureau of 
Forestry and the Bureau of Agriculture illustrating the forest and 
agricultural resources of the Islands. 

The present building is not really suitable for museum purposes and 
its location is unfortunate. It is believed that when a small part of 
the exhibits now available are installed and the Legislature realizes 
what a magnificent showing might be made were adequate space and 
a sufficient number of museum cases available, there will be little 
difficulty in securing appropriation for a suitable and properly located 
museum building with special facilities for commercial exhibits. An 
institution might then readily be established which would be of the 
greatest educational value and would strongly stimulate the conversion 
of the enormous natural resources of these Islands into hard cash. 

The Anloague building would be very useful for private commercial 
purposes and the money which might be derived from its sale would 
doubtless go far toward meeting the cost of a new and suitable structure 
to which the present museum cases could be transferred. 

GENERAL SCIENTIFIC LIBRARY. 

The development of the library has continued to be most satisfactory 
and the use made of its facilities increases steadily. While its shelves 
are not encumbered with the obsolete or otherwise useless works so 
commonly found in similar institutions, it is believed that it is the 



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best working scientific library in the Far East and that it compares 
favorably with many good scientific libraries in Europe and America. 
It is added to as occasion demands and its growth is steady and healthful. 
Space for additional shelving will be required by 1910. This can be 
furnished by vacating two rooms adjoining the present stock rooms if 
the much needed new wing is added to the laboratory building before 
that time. 

THE PHILIPPINE JOURNAL OF SCIENCE, 

The plan of issuing this Journal in three sections dedicated to medical 
science, botany and general science, respectively, has been most successful 
in encouraging subscriptions and exchanges. The annual cash value of 
the subscriptions and exchanges is now approximately 1^6,375. 

THE NECESSITY FOR A NEW WING TO THE LABORATORY BUILDING. 

The need for increased space, which was considerable at the end of 
the fiscal year 1906, and great at the end of the year 1907, has now 
become imperative. The building as originally constructed was, and so 
far as present indications go is likely to continue to be, fully adequate 
for the needs of the Bureau of Laboratories as then organized, but the 
further centralization of the scientific work of the Government by the 
establishing of the Bureau of Science created new and unforseen condi- 
tions. On this subject the Director of the Bureau says : 

"As each year passes and the work of the Bureau continues to expand, the need 
of such additional space becomes more and more evident. The library will soon 
have all of its shelf space filled; the herbarium has now completely occupied one 
room and some cases have been placed in another; the entomological collection is 
practically at its limit; the collection of fishes takes a large part of the room 
devoted to pathologic exhibits, and when identified specimens return from the 
United States there will be no place to put them; the division of mines has not 
been able properly to extend its work because of lack of floor space and when Dr. 
W. D. Smith, now on leave in Europe, returns with his collection of identified 
paleontologic material we shall be hard put properly to accommodate it. Further 
expansion of the chemical laboratory is also practically impossible without vacating 
some of the laboratory rooms used for other purposes. These collections are now 
so valuable and of such fundamental importance for scientific work in the Islands 
and also for the development of the Philippine University that I hope the appro- 
priation for the construction of a suitable wing will not be delayed beyond the next 
session of the legislature. It would be well, at the same time, to consider the 
advisability of building the structure necessary for the Philippine Museum in 
connection with this wing." 

It is earnestly hoped that at its coming session the Legislature will 
see its way clear to meet this need. 

THE BIOLOGICAL LABORATORY. 

Dr. Eichard P. Strong, the director of the biological laboratory, while 
absent on vacation leave visited the most important scientific institutions 
in Milan, Berne, Paris, Munich, Leipzig, Vienna, Dresden, Berlin, 



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Hamburg, London, Liverpool, Oxford, Cambridge, New York, Boston, 
Baltimore and Philadelphia. He attended the Fourteenth International 
Congress of Hygiene in Berlin in September, and reported upon the 
subject of protective inoculation against plague. He also attended the 
Annual Natur-Forscher Yersammlung in December. Dr. Strong paid 
particular attention to the work of the several foreign schools of tropical 
medicine. It would be well if all officers and employees could spend 
their vacation periods with such profit to the Government and to 
themselves. 

AUTOPSIES. 

The general autopsy work heretofore performed by the Biological 
Laboratory has now been transferred to the Philippine Medical School, 
but the laboratory still makes the autopsies and undertakes the diagnoses 
of cases of suspected infectious disease. 

Employees of the laboratory have made nine trips through the provinces 
for the bacteriologic diagnosis of leprosy. Although 1,875 examinations 
were made, only 1,571 gave positive bacteriological evidence of the 
presence of the disease, the value of these examinations being thus 
conclusively demonstrated. 

Very numerous bacteriological examinations of water have been neces- 
sary, the Bureau of Public Works sending many samples from artesian 
wells. Examinations for the Bureau of Health included not only water 
from sewers and estuaries but numerous mineral and aerated waters 
as well. 

PUBLICATIONS AND INVESTIGATIONS. 

The usual routine examinations have been made and the following 
publications have been completed as a result of investigations recently 
completed : 

"Studies in Plague Immunity," by Dr. Richard P. Strong. (Journal of Science, 
Vol. II, No. 3— B.) 

"The Recent Trend of Immunity Research," by Dr. Harry T. Marshall. (Journal 
of Science, Vol. II, No. 4— B.) 

"Infant Feeding and its Influence upon Infant Mortality in the Philippine Is- 
lands," by Drs. W. E. Musgrave and George F. Richmond. (Journal of Science, 
Vol. II, No. 4— B.) 

"Gangosa in the Philippine Islands," by Drs. W. E. Musgrave and Harry T. 
Marshall. (Journal of Science, Vol. II, No. 4 — B.) 

"The Investigations Carried on by the Biological Laboratory in Relation to the 
Suppression of the Recent Cholera Outbreak in Manila," by Dr. Richard P. Strong. 
(Journal of Science, Vol. II, No. 5 — B.) 

"A Histologic Study," by Dr. Harry T. Marshall. (Journal of Science, Vol. II, 
No. 5— B.) 

"The Etiology of Mycetoma," by Dr. W. E. Musgrave and M. T. CI egg. (Journal 
of Science, Vol. II, No. 6— B.) 

"A Series of Cases of Tropical Infantile Dysentery With a Hitherto Undescribed 
Bacillus as the Causative Factor," by Dr. Fred B. Bowman. (Journal of Science, 
Vol. Ill, No. 1— B.) 



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"An Investigation of the Quantitative Relationships Between Agglutinin, Ag- 
glutinoid, and Agglutinable Substance," by Dr. Y. K. Ohno. (Journal of Science, 
Vol. Ill, No. 1— B.) 

"Peculiar Cases of Traumatism of Internal Organs, Some Due to Tropical Condi- 
tions and Practices," by Dr. Maximilian Herzog. (Journal of Science, Vol. Ill, 
No. 1— B.) 

"The Influence of Symbiosis Upon the Pathogenicity of Microorganisms," by Dr. 
W. E. Musgrave. (Journal of Science, Vol. Ill, No. 2 — B.) 

"Studies of Cholera," by Dr. Harry T. Marshall. (Journal of Science, Vol. Ill, 
No. 2— B.) 

"A Biological Study of the Water Supply of the Philippine Islands, with a 
Description of a New Pathogenic Organism," by Dr. Ralph T. Edwards. (Journal 
of Science, Vol. Ill, No. 2— B.) 

"Filtration Experiments with the Virus of Cattle Plague," by Dr. E. H. Ruediger. 
(Journal of Science, Vol. Ill, No. 2— B.) 

SERUM SECTION. 

In addition to the manufacture upon a large scale of anti-rinderpest 
serum and vaccine virus, cholera prophylactic, plague prophylactic, Gono- 
coccus vaccine, Staphylococcus aureus vaccine, Staphylococcus albus vac- 
cine and Staphylococcus citreus vaccine were prepared in moderate 
quantities, while anti-diphtheritic serum, anti-tetanic serum, anti-cholera 
serum, anti-typhoid serum, anti-plague serum, and anti-dysenteric serum 
were made in amounts sufficient to supply the demand. Anthrax vaccine, 
tuberculin, both human and bovine, and mallein were also prepared. 
Typhoid reagent, paratyphoid reagent and cholera reagent (killed cul- 
tures) for agglutination, were continually kept on hand. Agglutinating 
and bacteriolytic serums in liquid and dried form for the purpose of the 
diagnosis of infectious diseases, normal horse serum, normal ox serum, 
and normal carabao serum have also been added to the list of preparations 
of the laboratory. 

The search for the organism or substance causing rinderpest, carried 
on by Dr. Euediger, has not been successful, but he has shown that the 
infectious material, whatever it may be, which is present in the blood 
of sick animals, will not pass through any of the ordinary Berkefeld filters, 
while that from the peritoneal washings obtained with 0.25 per cent, 
potassium citrate solution passes through all the Berkefeld filters, but 
does not pass through the Chamberland filters. These peritoneal washings 
are highly virulent and can be advantageously used, in producing the 
required immunization in serum animals, for the purposes for which 
virulent blood has heretofore been employed. In fact by their use the 
period of immunization of serum animals may be greatly reduced and 
the cost of feeding them while they are still useless correspondingly 
diminished. 

THE ENTOMOLOGICAL SECTION. 

Mr. Banks has continued his work on Philippine mosquitoes with 
special reference to their importance as agents for the transmission of 
malaria and has shown that at least one species of the genus Myzomyia 



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must be placed under the ban with Anopheles. He was successful in 
finding at Cervantes the source of malarial infection which has so long 
escaped detection. 

Numerous pleas for assistance when crops have been attacked by 
insects have been received. In nearly every case an entomologist was 
sent to study the damage and to provide means for its prevention if 
practicable. 

The bringing of bumblebees from the United States, in the hope that 
they might thrive in Benguet Province and fertilize red clover which 
grows luxuriantly there but does not form seed, was attended with much 
difficulty as it was necessary to ship the bees in cold storage. A limited 
number of bees were finally brought over alive and were liberated in 
the Trinidad Valley where they were seen from time to time up to the 
end of the first month of the rainy season. Whether they have survived 
the torrential rains of August remains to be determined. 

Interesting and important experiments have been carried on by Mr. 
Schultze in hybridizing the Ceylon silkworms, which have been success- 
fully introduced here, with those from Japan which do not flourish in the 
Philippines. It was hoped that a hybrid form might ultimately be 
developed which would deposit its eggs at frequent intervals, as does the 
Ceylon variety, while producing silk more closely resembling that of 
the Japan worms. 

The hybrids produced much better cocoons than did the Ceylon variety, 
but only about one-tenth of their eggs hatched as promptly as do those 
of individuals from Ceylon. It is possible that the continued rearing 
of these hybrids accompanied by rigid selection will ultimately produce 
the desired result. 

The following investigations have been completed during the year: 

"Experiments in Malarial Transmission by Means of Myzomyia ludlowii 
Theob.;" by Charles S. Banks; 

"New and Little Known Lepidoptera of the Philippine Islands/' by W. 
Schultze ; 

"Life Histories of Certain Coleoptera," by W. Schultze; 

"A Mosquito Which Breeds in Salt and Fresh Water," by Charles S. Banks ; 

"Biology of Philippine Culicidw" by Charles S. Banks; 

"Life Histories of Some Philippine Cassididce," by W. Schultze. 

THE BOTANICAL SECTION. 

The work of identifying botanical material has been greatly facili- 
tated by the trip of Mr. E. D. Merrill, who spent two months at Wash- 
ington working over the Philippine material in the United States 
National Herbarium, and who later visited the New York Botanical 
Garden, the Gray Herbarium at Cambridge, Mass., the Kew Herbarium 
and the British Museum. He also stopped at Ley den, Geneva and Flo- 
rence and worked for two weeks in Berlin. 

An economic botanist has been added to the force of the section and 



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the economic botanical resources of the Philippine Islands will now be 
systematically investigated for the first time. Some economic work has 
already been done. Tanbarks, rubber-producing vines, perfume-produc- 
ing plants, gums, resins and medicinal plants have been collected in bulk. 
The chemists of the Bureau have already made important investigations 
upon some of this material. 

The economic botanist has studied and reported upon the sugar-cane 
smut which appeared in La Laguna Province and has recommended 
measures for holding it in check which have given excellent results. 

Dr. Copeland has continued his work on the bud-rot of the cocoanut 
which has assumed serious proportions in the Provinces of La Laguna 
and Tayabas. 

Fifteen thousand one hundred and thirty-two additions to the her- 
barium have been made during the year through collections of employees 
of the Bureau of Science and of the Bureau of Forestry, miscellaneous 
Philippine collections and foreign material received in exchange. The 
foreign exchanges are of exceptional value. The total number of 
mounted specimens now in the herbarium is 61,045, of which 30,163 
are Philippine. A large amount of material is now in the hands of 
foreign specialists who have undertaken its identification. At present 
the chief obstacle in the way of pushing botanical work is lack of space 
in which to store and study collections when made. 

THE COLLECTION OF NATURAL-HISTORY SPECIMENS. 

The work of gathering material for the future natural-history museum 
has been steadily and successfully pushed. 

During the past eight years the undersigned has received frequent in- 
quiries as to the existence of any book which might be used in identifying 
Philippine birds and has been forced to reply that no such book existed, 
the literature on the subject being scattered through scores of volumes, 
special monographs and papers. 

The great educational value of nature study in primary and secondary 
schools is now universally recognized but such study has been rendered 
difficult in the Philippines on account of the entire lack of books suitable 
for use in identifying even our commoner plants or animals. 

In view of these facts the undersigned directed Mr. Eichard C. 
McGregor to prepare a series of descriptions of all known Philippine 
birds, supplemented by a complete series of keys to be used in identifica- 
tion. This work will be published in two sections. 

The first is completed and the second is well under way. It is 
believed that it will have a considerable sale not only on account of its 
value for use in the schools, but because it will be desired by many per- 
sons at isolated posts in the Islands who will be glad to vary the monotony 



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of their lives by studying the birds about them. Heretofore the study 
of Philippine birds has been possible only for specialists. Hereafter it 
can be undertaken by any one able to read the English language. 

THE CHEMICAL LABORATORY. 

Several members of the staff of the chemical laboratory have been 
kept engaged on problems of economic importance. Dr. Eichmond has 
begun a study of the so-called Manila copal or almaciga, extensively used 
in the manufacture of varnish, and his work will materially aid in 
clearing up the confusion at present surrounding the identity of the 
gums thus designated and of dammar. 

Important work has been done on Philippine oils and in determining 
the food values of certain oil cakes and seeds. Dr. Bacon has carried 
out investigations on Manila "elemi" and ylang-ylang, vetiver, lemon 
grass and other plants producing valuable essential oils. 

The undersigned found the fruit of Pittosporum resiniferum, com- 
monly known as the "petroleum nut," in the mountains of Benguet, and 
sent a quantity of it to Manila. Upon distillation, 3 per cent of heptane, 
a very valuable oil for cleaning delicate fabrics, and 7 per cent of pinene, 
an oil employed in the manufacture of artificial camphor, were obtained. 

Boneol, a near relative of camphor, has been isolated from Blumea 
balsamica, a common Philippine plant. A fragrant oil has been distilled 
from the leaves of Lantanna, Other tropical perfume yielding plants 
are under investigation. 

The Philippine Islands are already famous for their ylang-ylang oil, 
which has never been successfully produced in any other country. Other 
equally valuable oils are obtainable from plants and trees native to the 
Islands and they should eventually form an important article of com- 
merce. 

Numerous areas along the coasts of many of the Islands are covered 
with mangrove trees. An investigation of the barks from these trees 
shows a variation in the content of tannin from 17 per cent for Mindoro 
barks to 24 per cent, for those from Mindanao. 

The growing public appreciation of the work of the chemical laboratory 
is demonstrated by the constantly increasing number of outside requests 
for analyses of gums, resins, soils, waters, fertilizers, foodstuffs, oils, rocks 
and minerals. These applications have not been confined to the Phil- 
ippines but have come from neighboring countries as well. 

Reference has already been made to the large number of cement tests. 
Numerous analyses of drugs suspected of containing opium have been 
made in connection with the administration of the opium law. Two 
hundred and seventy analyses of carabao milk have been made for the 
Bureau of Health. There have been sufficient water analyses to occupy 
nearly all of the time of one chemist during the year. 
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THE DIVISION OF WEIGHTS, MEASURES AND MINERAL ANALYSES. 

This division has standardized all provincial weights and measures in 
accordance with the provisions of Act No. 1519 known as "The Weights 
and Measures Act." A large amount of routine work, for which payment 
has been received, has also been done. Six hundred and twenty-one gold 
assays have been made as against 233 for the previous year. Assays for 
gold, silver or platinum during 1908 numbered 772, copper 245, lead 10, 
zinc 3, iron, manganese, nickel, tellurium, etc., 12. A large amount of 
work has been done on coals. In fact most of the research work of this 
division has been on the local coals, cement rocks and clays. 

The following publications have been issued by the chemical laboratory : 

"Preliminary Paper on Utilization of Some Philippine Oil-bearing Seeds," 
by George F. Richmond and Mariano Vivencio del Rosario. (Journal of Science, 
Vol. II, No. 6— A.) 

"Philippine Terpenes and Essential Oils, Nos. 1 and 11, No. 11 on Ylang- 
Ylang Oil," by Raymond F. Bacon. (Journal of Science, Vol. Ill, No. 2 — A.) 

"The Composition of Horlick's Malted Milk," by George F. Richmond and 
Dr. W. E. Musgrave. (Journal of Science, Vol. Ill, No. 2 — A.) 

"The Occurrence, Composition and Radioactivity of the Clays from Luzon, 
Philippine Islands," by Alvin J. Cox. (Journal of Science, Vol. II, No. 6 — A.) 

"Starch Production in the Philippine Islands," by Raymond F. Bacon. (Jour- 
nal of Science, Vol. Ill, No. 2— A.) 

"The Relationship Between the External Appearance and the Ash Content 
of Philippine Coal," by Alvin J. Cox. (Journal of Science, Vol. Ill, No. 2 — A.) 

"Philippine Arrow Poisons," by Raymond F. Bacon. (Journal of Science, 
Vol. Ill, No. 1— A.) 

"The Purification of Coconut Oil," by George F. Richmond. (Journal of 
Science, Vol. Ill, No. 1— A.) 

THE LABORATORY FOR FOOD AND DRUGS INSPECTION. 

The results of the work of this division have already been referred to 
in reporting on the work of the Bureau of Health. They will be found 
set forth in detail in the report of the Director of the Bureau of 
Science. 

DIVISION OF MINES. 

The force of this division has suffered serious loss by the death of 
Senor Jugo Navarro, who had been continuously in Government service 
as a draftsman for about twenty-eight years, having served successively 
in the Spanish Inspeccion General de Minas, in the former Mining 
Bureau, and in the present division of mines; and in the death of Mr, 
Harry M. Ickis, who was treacherously murdered by wild men in the 
mountains of northern Mindanao. In spite of these losses and of the 
fact that it has gone through the year shorthanded the division has 
completed a geological reconnoissance of the Batanes Islands, a trian- 
gulation survey of the Arroroy mining district in Masbate, a topographic 



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survey and geological reconnoissance of the same district, an under- 
ground survey of the old Spanish mine known as "The Big Copper" 
in Lepanto, and a topographic survey and geological reconnoisance of 
parts of Mindanao. 

The following publications have been issued: 

"A Description of the Geology and Mining Operations, in the Camarines 
Gold Fields," by H. M. Ickis. (Journal of Science, Vol. IV, No. 2, and Far 
Eastern Review.) 

"Notes on the Geology and Geography of the Baguio Mineral District," 
with map, by A. J. Eveland. (Journal of Science, Vol. II, No. 4 — A.) 

"The Petrography of Some Rocks from Benguet Province," by Warren D. 
Smith. (Journal of Science, Vol. II, No. 4 — A.) 

"The Gold Placers of Nueva Ecija," by Henry G. Ferguson. (Journal of 
Science, Vol. IV, No. 5, and Far Eastern Review.) 

"The Sulphur Deposits of Leyte," by Maurice Goodman. (Journal of Science, 
Vol. IV, No. 4, and Far Eastern Review.) 

"The Sulphur Deposits of Camiguin Island," by Henry G. Ferguson. (Jour- 
nal of Science, Vol. IV, No. 5, and Far Eastern Review.) 

"A Geological Reconnoissance of the Batanes Islands," by Henry G. Ferguson. 
(Journal of Science, Vol. IV, No. 5, and Far Eastern Review.) 

"The Stone Quarry of Mariveles," by H. M. Ickis. (Journal of Science, Vol. 
IV, No. 7, and Far Eastern Review.) 

"Notes on the Manila Lime Supply," by Maurice Goodman. (Journal of 
Science, Vol. IV, No. 7, and Far Eastern Review.) 

"Contributions to the Physiography of the Philippine Islands: 'Batanes 
Islands/" by Henry G. Ferguson. (Journal of Science, Vol. Ill, No. 1 — A.) 

"The Geology of the Compostella-Danao Coal Fields," with map, by Warren 
D. Smith. (Journal of Science, Vol. II, No. 6 — A.) 

"Note on the Occurrence of Rhyolite in Cebu," by Henry G. Ferguson. (Jour- 
nal of Science, Vol. II, No. 6 — A.) 

There has also been issued the first Annual Bulletin of the Mineral 
Eesources of the Philippine Islands. 

In view of the increasing importance of the mining industry it is 
believed that facilities for making practical working tests upon from 
three to five ton samples of ore should be furnished. At the present 
time it is necessary for prospectors to send such samples to the United 
States or to foreign countries. This involves a heavy expense and much 
loss of time. To this end there should be provided a small stamp mill 
and a cyanide plant. 

In the opinion of the undersigned there should be added a smelting 
and refining plant large enough to handle the gold produced in the 
Islands. At present miners are obliged to turn their crude bullion 
over to the banks which advance a part of its value and ship it to Pacific 
coast smelters or to the mint at San Francisco. The miners must wait 
for the balance of their money until returns are received from the 
smelter or the mint. They then receive the full value of their gold less 
the following charges: Interest at 8 per cent on the amount already 



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advanced to them; smelter or mint charges; express; insurance and a 
charge for the services of the bank. 

These charges amount to more than 2 per cent of the total value of 
the bullion. It is believed that the Bureau of Science could do the 
refining at a small profit on a 1 per cent basis, the Government might 
then buy the gold and the miners would get their returns immediately 
which would be a material advantage to many of them. An arrange- 
ment might be made by which the Government could use gold bars in 
maintaining its gold reserve ; or it could sell its gold in China and India 
where the pure metal for use in the arts and trades often brings a 
premium. Any surplus remaining could be shipped to the United 
States mint. In the opinion of the undersigned it would be well worth 
while to extend this encouragement to the local mining industry. 

THE DIVISION OF ETHNOLOGY. 

Dr. M. L. Miller, the chief of this division, was absent on leave 
during a part of the year and the time of its remaining member has 
been largely occupied by museum work. Since Dr. Miller's return he 
has done a large amount of editorial work and has also performed 
inspection work in jSTueva Vizcaya and Lepanto-Bontoc at the direction 
of the undersigned. Very valuable ethnological collections have been 
secured during the year by gift and by purchase. 

THE DIVISION OF FISH AND FISHERIES. 

The work on Philippine fish and fisheries outlined at the beginning of 
the fiscal year has been steadily prosecuted. The Director of the Bureau 
of Science summarizes the ends in view as follows : 

"1. To secure as complete a collection as possible of all Philippine fishes, cata- 
loguing the specimens under their native, English and scientific names. 

"2. To study the foods, life histories, distribution and migrations of useful 
fishes. 

"3. To discover the nature of the feeding and spawning grounds of the food fishes, 
to ascertain the period of spawning, the characteristics of the ova, the time required 
for, and the conditions favorable to, hatching. 

"4. To see what methods and apparatus are used by the natives in the catching, 
curing and drying of fishes and to suggest such improvements as we know to be 
practicable. 

"5. To determine what protection can be given to young fish during the early 
stages of their growth. 

"6. To find places where fishes could be introduced profitably, or where pond 
culture could be inaugurated, or practical fish-cultural methods carried out. 

"7. To ascertain what are the enemies and the causes of the disappearance of 
useful fishes. 

"8. To list the price paid in each locality for fresh and salted fish, the quantity 
secured and the amount exported and imported. 

"9. To obtain figures as to the quantity and value of all other fishery products. 

"10. To make an investigation of the pearl, sponge and coral fisheries." 



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This work has been carried on by Mr. Alvin Seale aided by three 
Filipino assistants, one of whom is a skilled artist capable of accurately 
reproducing the. colors of living fishes which fade so quickly after death. 
Some 8,000 specimens of fish have been collected representing numerous 
new species and many, others not heretofore recorded from the Philip- 
pines. 

An idea of the abundance and variety of Philippine fishes may be 
gained from the fact that 212 different species were taken in the Gulf of 
Davao in a single day. Mr. Seale has devoted a considerable amount 
of time to the study of pearl fisheries with important practical results. 
He has also located sponge beds of commercial value and has discovered 
precious coral at several points. 

He has combined in a happy manner valuable scientific work and 
practical commercial work. He has been able to give many valuable 
suggestions in connection with legislation for the protection of pearl 
and sponge fisheries and has a large amount of data of a practical 
nature just ready for publication. It is greatly to be regretted that 
at this time ill health should compel his return to the United States. 
It is hoped, however, that he will be able to continue his work while there. 

During the year 1907 the Philippines imported fish and other sea 
products to the value of 1*498,762, while exports of pearl shell were 
valued at 1*111,124, tortoise shell, 1*33,082, fish, 1*97,918, and trepang, 
etc., 1*64,762, giving a total of but 1*306,886. Fishery imports thus 
exceeded exports by 1*191,876, and that too when our seas swarm with 
fish, and especially with sardines which are one of our principal imports. 
The importance of developing our fisheries would seem too evident to 
demand discussion. 

Only this brief outline of the work of the Bureau of Science can be 
given here. A full account of it will be found in the report of its 
Director. 

THE WORK OF THE STEAMER "ALBATROSS." 

In his last annual report the undersigned outlined the arrangement 
which had been made for bringing the steamer Albatross to these Islands 
and expressed a confident hope that there would follow important practical 
results which would greatly stimulate the development of Philippine 
fisheries. 

With regret he is now obliged to state that these hopes have not been 
realized. For some reason the Albatross failed to bring the promised 
appliances for commercial fishing such as the purse seine. It was 
understood at the outset that the members of her staff would furnish 
preliminary statements of important results for the benefit of the Insular 
Government, as well as for that of the public, which was to be reached, 
through the medium of the Philippine Journal of Science and of the 



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local press, but no such statements have been furnished unless two notes 
on the occurrence of Peridinium in Manila Bay are to be so considered. 

No response has been received to a request for information likely to 
be of value in framing legislation for the protection of pearl and sponge 
fisheries, made by the undersigned, while another request for information 
relative to commercial fisheries was forwarded to Washington for reply 
and no reply has been made. 

After some preliminary difficulties had been overcome, Mr. Alvin 
Seale and two of his Filipino assistants were received on board the 
Albatross, but found that they could not work there to good advantage 
and were soon recalled at their own request. 

So far as the undersigned is informed the work of the staff of the 
Albatross has thus far consisted chiefly in the making of very extensive 
and scientifically very valuable marine zoological collections, but has not 
resulted in any discoveries of commercial importance. 

The arrangement under which the Insular Government furnished 
coal for this vessel terminated on June 30. Fortunately the amount of 
coal consumed was far less than had been anticipated and provided for. 
When the material collected is finally disposed of the Insular Govern- 
ment will receive very valuable collections which should fully com- 
pensate it for the expense which it has incurred. Meanwhile it must 
be confessed that the practical results obtained and communicated to 
the Insular Government have thus far been nil. 

BUREAU OF LANDS. 

This is the one Bureau of the Department of the Interior which has 
had any material increase in its force during the year, the number of 
employees having been 637 on June 30, 1907, and 965 on June 30, 1908. 
This increase was the result of putting on additional survey parties in 
order to bring about the early completion of the work of surveying the 
friar estates, and of employing additional laborers for work in operating 
the irrigation systems on these estates. 

NEW WORK. 

The scope of the work of the Bureau of Lands has been materially 
increased during the year by the enactment of Act No. 1854, which 
provides that the administration of Government irrigation systems shall 
be controlled by the Bureau of Lands, and of Act No. 1875, which gives 
to the Bureau of Lands the general supervision of all surveys made 
for the Court of Land Eegistration. 

In actual practice, however, the work of the Bureau has not as yet 
been materially augmented as no new Government irrigation systems 
have been completed and the authority to supervise all surveys for the 
Court of Land Eegistration was not conferred until July 1, 1908. 



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TRANSFER OF THE OFFICE TO BAGUIO. 

In order to determine experimentally and beyond reasonable doubt 
the practical result of transferring office work to Baguio during the 
period of greatest heat, the undersigned ordered the Director of Lands to 
proceed to Baguio taking with him such part of his office force as it might 
be practicable to transfer under the then existing circumstances. The 
Director, Assistant Director, seven American and ten Filipino employees 
accordingly proceeded to the summer capital. 

An office was established in one of the Government cottages. Some 
of the employees lived at the Hotel Pines while others occupied tents 
and boarded at a mess conducted by one of them. 

Concerning this experiment the Director of Lands says : 

"The result of this move * * * proved conclusively to my mind that it 
would be advantageous to the Government to transfer as many of its employees to 
Baguio during the hot season as possible, for the conservation of health and the 
increased efficiency while there and after return to Manila. While no physical 
examinations were made of the employees of this Bureau, the weights of individuals, 
taken upon arrival and at the date of their departure, showed a gain in each 
employee of from 5£ to 15 pounds. No illness was occasioned by the change of 
climate and conditions to the employees, and in fact it is believed that all benefited 
thereby. * * * As a partial offset to the expenditures of the Bureau during 
its sojourn in Baguio, it may be stated that several employees have signified their 
intention of foregoing their vacation leave this year on account of their stay in 
Baguio, and as the value of the vacation leave of those employees who went to 
Baguio exceeds 1*3,000 for the year, it may be assumed that one-half of this will be 
saved on account of the Baguio trip, which will also reduce the expense of the 
Bureau while in Baguio. 

"In conclusion it may be stated that the result of the transfer of the Bureau of 
Lands to Baguio has been beneficial beyond expectations, and to my mind the expense 
of this experiment has been practically offset by the advantages to the employees 
and their increased efficiency to the Government service, and I therefore recommend 
that for the coming year this Bureau be authorized to transfer to Baguio as large 
a number of employees as accommodations may be provided for, provided that funds 
are available to pay the expenses, the rate of which expense per employee will be 
reduced materially in comparison with the expense for the past year. * * * 

"I believe it possible under the best conditions, to subsist and quarter Americans 
in Baguio for 1*75 per month, and Filipino employees for one-third of that amount, 
including first-class food and accommodations. 

"Looking to the future, it is suggested that the Bureau be authorized to begin 
the preparation of plans for a permanent building in Baguio sufficient to accom- 
modate the entire Bureau, with quarters for the employees." 

It was particularly interesting to the undersigned to note the rapid 
improvement in the condition of the Filipino employees during their 
stay at this delightful mountain resort. The number of Filipinos first 
taken was subsequently augmented, the average for the season being 
fourteen and without exception they seemed to profit greatly by the 
change. The experiment will be continued this year upon a larger 



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scale. In the opinion of the undersigned there is no room for doubt 
that the transfer during six to nine months of employees of those 
offices of the Insular Government, the nature of whose work is such that 
it can be done as well at Baguio as at Manila, would result in material 
economy to the Government on account of the increased energy and 
efficiency of the employees. 

LAW CLERK NEEDED BY THE BUREAU OF LANDS. 

Long since, the Director of Lands urgently requested authorization 
for the appointment of a law clerk. The request was denied upon the 
promise of the Attorney- General to furnish the Bureau with the services 
of a properly qualified attorney when required. Unfortunately the pres- 
sure of work in the Attorney- General's office has been so great that it 
has been impossible to make such assignment and it has been necessary 
to forward each question requiring legal action to the Attorney- General's 
office. This has necessarily resulted in much delay and in the occasional 
temporary assignment of attorneys not familiar with land cases, while 
a number of cases upon which legal advice should have been obtained 
have been acted upon in the best judgment of the administrative officers 
of the Bureau. 

The legal questions arising in connection with the Friar Lands, water 
rights, mining claims, public lands and lands which are the property of 
the Insular Government are numerous and important enough fully to 
occupy the time of a highly qualified attorney and such an attorney 
should be at all times available for the work of the Bureau of Lands. 

FRIAR LANDS. 

In the report of the Director of Lands will be found a table show- 
ing for each estate the area in hectares and the estimated percentage 
at present occupied, the percentage surveyed, that sold or leased, the 
number of leases, the area covered by said leases, the annual receipts 
due under existing contracts, the receipts actually obtained during the 
fiscal year of 1908, the annual interest on the purchase price at 4 per 
cent., the current expenses for the fiscal year 1908, the deficit or surplus 
as the case may be, and the extraordinary non-recurrent expenses of the 
fiscal year of 1908. A summary of this table shows the following totals : 



1907 



1908 



Area purchased hectares 

Percentage occupied 

Percentage surveyed 

Percentage sold or leased 

Number of leases 

Area leased ,. hectares. 

Annual receipts contracted for 

Actual receipts 

Annual interest on purchase price, at 4 per cent 

Administration expenses 

Irrigation expenses 

Total current expenses 



158, 677 


158, 677 


32 


38.8 


60.1 


100 


22.6 


26.7 


22,229 


20,652 


35, 832 


44,046 


T-241, 937. 24 


P-290, 160. 88 


^226,627.63 


V 280, 915. 74 


F-554,437.02 


¥"554,437.02 


¥-85,620.09 


¥"94,606.37 


P-17,026.67 


flO, 298. 14 


1*657, 083. 78 


¥-659,341.53 



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In the case of nineteen estates expenses have exceeded receipts, the 
total deficit being 1*388,197.99 for the fiscal year 1908 as against 
1*430,456. 15 for the fiscal year 1907. On four estates the receipts have 
exceeded expenses but the total surplus is only 1*9,712.20. There was 
no surplus on any estate during the fiscal year of 1907. The net deficit 
for the fiscal year of 1908 is therefore 1*378,485.79, a reduction as com- 
pared with the previous fiscal year of 1*51,970.36. 

It must be remembered that there were during the year additional 
heavy non-recurrent expenses incident to the completion of the surveys 
on all of the estates and important permanent repairs to irrigation systems 
on two of them. The expenditure for surveys during the year, was 
f*239,087.51 as against f*206,489.18 for the fiscal year of 1907, and the 
expenses for permanent improvement to irrigation systems amounted to 
f*20,949.63 as against f*13,681.96. 

NEW LEASES. 

At the date of the last annual report nearly all leases were based on 
estimated areas. New leases have been issued upon the following plan: 

When the actual area of a parcel has been determined upon an estate 
which has been classified for sale the annual rental charged is fixed at 5 
per cent, of the appraised value of the parcel. When the area of the parcel 
concerned has not been definitely determined but the survey of the estate 
has been completed and the planimeter area of the parcel has been deter- 
mined, the land is leased on this area on a basis of 5 per cent, of the 
appraised value, or if the estate has not been classified the same rate per 
hectare is charged as before but the area is changed as determined by the 
planimeter. In nearly all cases this has resulted in an increase of the 
rent for the parcels, as the original areas were almost invariably under- 
estimated and the rental paid did not equal 5 per cent, of the appraised 
value. 

It was at first intended to charge 6 per cent, of the appraised value, 
of which 4 per cent, would have gone as an offset against the interest on 
the investment, 1 per cent, for administration charges and 1 per cent, 
to the sinking fund, but it was found to be so difficult for many of the 
tenants to meet their obligations that the total charge was reduced to 
5 per cent, which is the least amount that will cover the interest on the 
investment and the cost of administering these estates. 

The Director of Lands anticipates that during the fiscal year 1909 
the rentals contracted for on fifteen of the estates will equal the interest 
and expenses. The San Jose and Isabela Estates being practically with- 
out tenants can never become self-supporting through rentals unless some 
successful system of colonization can be inaugurated. As regards the 
other six estates, however, it is hoped that the giving of special attention 
to obtaining new tenants, as has already been done sucessfully in the 
case of the Muntinlupa Estate, may result soon in making them nearly or 
quite self-supporting. 



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SALES. 

The San Marcos Estate has been disposed of, the Dampol Estate is 
being sold and the Matamo Estate has been leased with the probability 
of sale. The Binagbag and Orion Estates have been offered for sale and 
the Director of Lands anticipates that they will be entirely disposed of 
within a short time. 

Other estates will be offered for sale as soon as computation of the 
areas of the several parcels can be completed, but the volume of this 
work is very great. There are more than fifty thousand parcels of land 
with an average of eight angles to the parcel and the amount of computa- 
tion necessarily involved is enormous. A good idea of the difficulty of 
the work involved in surveying these estates may be obtained by glancing 
at the plat of the Talisay-Minglanilla Estate which will be found in 
the report of the Director of Lands. This estate of 300 hectares is 
divided into more than 1,300 parcels of typical irregularity. 

The Director of Lands asked for an increase of 1*79,000 in his ap- 
propriation in order that this work might be pushed, but the Legislature 
declined to allow it. He estimates that if his present computing force 
remains available for this work the remaining estates may be offered 
for sale as follows : 

"During the six months ending December 31, 1908 : Guiguinto, Banilad, Malinta, 
Santa Rosa and Muntinlupa. 

"During the six months ending June 30, 1909: Isabela, Lolomboy, Binan, Tala, 
Naic and San Francisco de Malabon. 

"During the six moths ending December 31, 1909: Calamba, Santa Cruz de Mala- 
bon and Santa Maria de Pandi. 

"During the six months ending June 30, 1910: Imus, Piedad and Talisay- 
Minglanilla." 

If, however, it is necessary to use this force for computing in con- 
nection with surveys for the Court of Land Eegistration further delay 
will invariably result. 

AMENDMENTS TO FRIAB LAND ACT. 

Certain important amendments to the Friar Land Act have been 
made. This act made the provisions of chapter two of the Public Land 
Act apply to sales of friar lands. The amount of land which could be 
sold to an individual was thus limited to 16 hectares which would in 
very many cases have defeated the obvious intention of the Act to allow 
tenants to secure their actual holdings, and would have delayed for many 
years the sale of large tracts, thus obliging the Government to continue 
to pay interest on their purchase price. The provision of the Public 
Land Act that surveys should be in regular sub-divisions was entirely 
impracticable on occupied friar estates on account of the very irregular 
form of actual holdings. 

The further requirement for advertising after application for purchase 



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had been made imposed an entirely needless and unwarranted expense 
of from 1*20 to 1*100 on each purchaser and the most liberal arrangement 
relative to payment possible was that it should be made in one install- 
ment after five years, with interest at 6 per cent. 

Under the law as amended there is no limit as to the amount of land 
which may be purchased; necessity for advertisement is done away with 
and the land sold at its cost to the Government up to the date of sale, 
deferred payments bearing interest at the rate of 4 per cent, which is 
the rate the Government pays on its bonds. Before unoccupied lands 
are offered for sale the people of the towns in which they are located 
must be notified of the proposed sale by public crier. 

Another very important amendment extends the time for making 
payments to within one year of the date of the maturity of the friar-land 
bonds. The original act allowed ten years from the date of purchase, 
payments to be made, if so desired, in equal annual installments. The 
amendment extends the time from ten years to twenty-five years. This 
amendment seemed absolutely necessary as few of the occupants of the 
poorer class lands would have been able to meet their annual payments 
under the former arrangement. This extension of time lies within the 
discretion of the Director of Lands and it is not intended to apply it 
to urban lots as there is no necessity therefor, the difficulty having arisen 
in the case of agricultural lands, especially when at present nonproductive. 

The law as amended authorizes payment in semiannual installments 
when desired and this will be a convenience for some tenants. 

FRIAR LANDS LOANS. 

In the last annual report of the undersigned mention was made of 
the fact that the Commission has set aside a fund of 1*100,000 for the 
purpose of establishing a reimbursable fund to be known as the "Friar- 
lands loan fund," which should be available for the making of mortgage 
loans upon growing crops and salable commodities manufactured there- 
from, work animals, warehouses, mill houses and machinery and other 
property, both real and personal, belonging to the actual and bona fide 
cultivators of the friar lands, and for extensions of the cultivated areas 
on such estates. The Act further provides for the method of handling 
these funds by regulations to be approved by the Secretary of the Interior. 
The regulations made will be found set forth in the report of the Director 
of Lands. 

This legislation was enacted so late as to render it almost impossible 
to make funds available for the planting of that year's sugar crop 
which should have taken place in November, December and January. 
As it had been determined that loans from this small fund should be 
made only for the purpose of placing under cultivation sugar lands on 
the Santa Eosa, Calamba, Binan, Imus, San Francisco de Malabon and 
Santa Cruz de Malabon Estates the amount placed was necessarily 



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small. The total amount of loans made aggregates 1*1 1,690, of which 
amount M 1,000 was used for the purchase of draft animals. 

The disbursement of the money was on the order of the borrower 
direct to the cattle dealer in payment for animals purchased and the 
borrower was thus prevented from disposing of the funds in any other 
manner than that agreed upon. At the present writing all of the 
animals purchased are alive and well and the immediate result has been 
a considerable increase in the area cultivated for sugar with very good 
prospects for an excellent crop, so that there should be no difficulty 
in repaying the loans. 

Much difficulty has been experienced in getting the securities of 
friar-lands loans into proper shape, for the Chattel Mortgage Law is 
new and its terms are not yet generally or well understood. 

SPECIAL INDUCEMENTS TO OCCUPATION AND CULTIVATION OF FRIAR ESTATES. 

Both the Director of Lands and the undersigned are of the opinion 
that upon the date of the cultivation of the friar lands depends the 
date of their final disposal as the price necessarily asked is so high as 
to make it improbable that sales can, in most cases, be made before a 
steady income from crops is assured so that purchasers can be certain 
of being able to pay on the installment plan. 

At the request of the Director of Lands, the Bureau of Agriculture 
has worked two steam plows on the Santa Eosa Estate during part of 
the year with results which have been very satisfactory to the Director 
and to the tenants and have materially increased the cultivated area. 
The original contracts with tenants provided that they should furnish 
fuel and water for the plowing engines and a part of the labor required. 
In nearly every case, however, they failed to furnish fuel and water and 
the labor furnished was often insufficient in quantity and unsatisfactory 
in quality. Contracts hereafter entered into should provide for the 
furnishing of fuel and water, and probably of all labor as well, by the 
Bureau of Agriculture. The amount of plowing performed will be 
increased during the present year and further inducements such as 
improvements to roads, and repairs and reconstructions to irrigation 
systems, will continue to be made. 

RESERVATIONS REQUESTED ON FRIAR LANDS FOR INSULAR, MUNICIPAL AND 
PROVINCIAL PURPOSES. 

There have been a number of requests from Insular, municipal and 
provincial authorities that friar lands be reserved, without compen- 
sation, for various public purposes. The Director of Lands has con- 
tended that if portions of friar lands were needed by any department 
of the Government they must be rented, or purchased and paid for, and 
that in no instance should portions of the friar estates be finally disposed 



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of without reimbursing the friar-lands fund for their full value as 
determined by the usual method. In this contention he has had the 
full support of the • undersigned. 

FALSE RUMORS RELATIVE TO THE REPURCHASE OF PORTIONS OF FRIAR 
ESTATES BY FRIARS. 

The rumors which have been current to the effect that the friars were 
repurchasing portions of the friar estates at a much less price than the 
Government had paid for them are absolutely without foundation. Not 
1 meter of land has been resold to the friars nor will any land be sold 
at less than its cost price to the Government, plus the cost of administra- 
tion to date of sale and with interest at the rate of 4 per cent, per annum 
to the date of sale. 

POLITICAL AND OTHER DIFFICULTIES. 

It is gratifying to be able to report that political agitation has inter- 
fered less with the administration of the friar estates than during any 
previous year. 

Many difficulties have, however, been encountered by friar-lands 
agents as, for instance, in the case of the agent of the Naic Estate on 
whose recommendation an application to lease a large tract of land, 
really for the purpose of cutting the wood on it, was denied. The 
applicant then employed agents to steal the wood. They were detected 
and the agent filed criminal charges against those responsible. They 
reciprocated by filing charges against the agent in a justice of the 
peace court for defrauding the Government. Bail was fixed at 5*3,000 
and was furnished. Immediately thereafter the agent was charged with 
estafa and 1*300 bail was required and the agent was informed that 
other charges would be filed against him until he could no longer 
furnish bail, the evident purpose being to jail him and get him out of 
the way. The person primarily responsible for the taking of the wood 
also filed a civil suit claiming damage to his character and for stopping 
him from selling wood of the Government. Careful examination has 
failed to show foundation for any of these charges which seem to have 
been filed as a result of the agent's endeavoring to carry out specific in- 
structions from the Director of Lands to stop the theft of firewood from 
the estate. 

REPAIRS TO IRRIGATION WORKS. 

Apart from ordinary repairs 20,400 meters of irrigation ditches have 
been cleaned and reexcavated on the Lolomboy Estate, and on the Santa 
Maria de Pandi Estate repairs have been made to nine dams and more 
than 13,000 meters of irrigation ditches have been cleaned or reexcavated. 

In addition to the maintenance and repair work performed by this 
Bureau the Bureau of Public Works has direct supervision of the more 



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extensive repairs to dams, ditches, tunnels and canals. A large amount 
of work has been performed by the latter Bureau during the year on the 
estates in Cavite Province and surveys and estimates for two new projects 
on the Imus and Naic Estates, respectively, have been prepared. 

A detailed statement of the conditions which have prevailed on each 
of the estates, including the work performed, will be found in the report 
of the Director of Lands. 

HOMESTEADS. 

Twenty-one hundred and sixty-six homestead applications were re- 
ceived, or 503 less than during the previous fiscal year. There is much 
indifference among the Filipinos toward acquiring title to land and so 
long as they are allowed to occupy public land they seem to care little 
whether or not they have title. 

Experience has shown that the presence of a land inspector, to inform 
them of the necessity and benefit of acquiring legal titles, results in the 
filing of many applications which otherwise would not be made. An 
additional cause for the falling off in homestead applications is found 
in the marked tendency among owners of large estates to discourage the 
more ignorant when they seek to take up land on their own account. 
One of the common procedures employed to this end is to exhibit written 
documents and plans seeming to indicate that the person who exhibits 
them is the owner of a vast territory in the region where the homesteader 
desires to secure a homestead. The plans and documents may be grossly 
fraudulent but the ignorant native has no means of knowing this and 
becomes discouraged, believing that there is no public land remaining. 

The Director of Lands has discovered that homestead applications are 
not infrequently made in the names of persons who have no knowledge 
that such applications have been filed. Applicants who have been re- 
quested to point out the land applied for in order that an inspector may 
determine whether it is more valuable for agricultural purposes than 
for forestry purposes have stated that they had never signed any ap- 
plications. These cases seem to indicate attempts fraudulently to obtain 
land through bogus homestead applications, and if sufficient evidence 
can be obtained prosecutions will be inaugurated. 

There has been a material increase in the number of homestead ap- 
plications approved, the number for the year being 1,459 or nearly double 
the total allowed for the three previous years. 

PUBLIC LANDS. 
SALES OF PUBLIC LANDS. 

Only fifty-one additional sales applications have been received. They 
cover an area of but 583 hectares. The total sales applications received 
up to June 30th, 1908, are 219 covering an area of 5,564 hectares. In 



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view of these facts could anything have been- more groundless than the 
fear that Philippine agricultural lands would be bought up in large 
quantities under a liberal land law ? 

Of the total number of applications to purchase received since the 
promulgation of the Public Land Act, 105, covering 1,599 hectares, have 
been rejected, canceled or withdrawn. 

The Director of Lands renews his recommendation that individuals 
or corporations be permitted to purchase as many contiguous tracts of 
land as they may desire at different times, provided the total area does 
not exceed the legal allowance. In this way persons or corporations with 
small resources can purchase land and add to it, as circumstances permit, 
without the necessity of encumbering themselves at the outset with the 
price of the maximum allowance which they might not be able to cul- 
tivate for a number of years. It is undeniably true that up to the 
present time the greatest improvements made on land purchased or 
leased from the Government have been made by such persons or corpora- 
tions of limited means, and in view of these facts the undersigned heartily 
concurs in the recommendation of the Director of Lands. 

LEASES OF PUBLIC LANDS. 

There has been some increase in applications to lease public lands, 
the number being 56 as against a total of 22 for the previous three 
years. Of the 56 applications received 46 are from the Island of Min- 
danao. 

FREE PATENTS TO NATIVE SETTLERS. 

There have been 2,045 free patent applications covering 9,836 hectares, 
as against 8,607 applications received during the previous fiscal year. 
This decrease is believed to be due in part to the fact that there has been 
but one public land inspector employed and that he has been in the field 
but a small portion of the time. The single inspector who was in the field 
the previous year secured some 3,000 applications ! Further reasons for 
the decrease are that a majority of those entitled to the benefits of 
chapter four of the Public Land Act have probably filed their applica- 
tions, while others have failed to learn that the time within which they 
may make applications has been extended until January 1, 1909, although 
every effort has been made to spread this information. 

Nearly one-tenth of the applications received have been rejected — in 
nearly every case because of noncompliance with the law relative to occu- 
pation and cultivation. Numerous applications, have been received which, 
if their statements are to be credited, show that the applicant began the 
cultivation of the land desired some years before he was born! Such 
obviously false statements are probably more the fault of the persons 



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making out the applications than of the applicants, many of whom are 
very ignorant, and applicants are always given an opportunity to set 
themselves right by making affidavits correcting obvious errors. 

TOWN SITES. 

Town-site surveys have been completed at Sibul Springs in Bulacan, 
Dansalan, Parang and Cotabato in the Moro Province. 

The survey of the proposed town site of Davao in the same province is 
now in progress. 

Forty-four additional lots have been sold in the Baguio town site at 
prices ranging from 4 centavos to 15£ centavos per square meter, the 
minimum sale price being 2 centavos above the minimum at any previous 
sale and the maximum being 2| centavos above the maximum at any 
former sale. 

UNPERFECTED TITLES. 

During the year the Director of Lands has received 384 notices from 
the Court of Land Eegistration of cases in which applicants have claimed 
patents under chapter six of the Public Land Act. After investigation 
he has requested the Attorney-General to enter opposition in 70 and 
appearance in 36. Twelve are still pending examination. On 260 it 
was not deemed necessary that any special action be taken to protect the 
rights of the Government the claims being apparently just. 



The termination of the surveys on the friar estates has made possible 
an increased number of surveys under sections 58 and 66 of the Public 
Land Act. There have been executed 172 surveys covering 234 parcels 
of land under the provisions of the former section at an average cost of 
1*4.27 per hectare, and 145 surveys covering 227 parcels with a total 
area of 9,330 hectares have been executed under the provisions of the 
latter section at a cost of f*21,212.99. 

MINERAL AND MINING CLAIMS. 

During the year five patents for lode gold claims have been issued and 
one patent for a placer copper claim. 

There have been advertised and are now ready for patent twenty-eight 
other lode claims containing gold and five placer claims. Fourteen addi- 
tional claims are now ready to be advertised. Three additional claims 
have been surveyed and applications for patent will probably soon be made 
therefor. 

The following table shows the claims filed during the year so far as 
information has been received. However, owing to the extremely lax 



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manner in which the officials at present performing the duty of mining 
recorders render their reports this information is not complete. 

Entries filed. 

Coal claims 90 

Lode claims for gold 508 

Lode claims for silver and lead 11 

Lode claims, character not stated : 25 

Lode claims, copper, rubies, silver _ 1* 

Placer claims for gold 83 

Placer claims for guano 8 

Placer claims for limestone 1 

Placer claims for manganese 6 

Placer claims for ocher 1 

Placer claims for sulphur water 2 

Placer claims, character not stated 5 

Full details as to these claims and the regions where they are located 
will be found in the report of the Director of Lands. 

There has been a good deal of activity in mining during the past year. 
The number of claims which have been patented and those pending patent, 
the formation of new mining corporations, the importation of a few 
modern stamp mills and dredgers and the undertaking of investigations 
by several well-known mining experts are all encouraging signs, but so 
long as the Philippine mining industry must struggle along under the 
incubus of Sections 33 and 75 of the Act of Congress of July 1, 1902, 
active and healthful development can hardly be anticipated. The recom- 
mendations relative to these sections which have hitherto so often been 
made are therefore repeated and emphasized. 

RECLAIMED LAND. 

A survey of the area reclaimed from Manila Bay by filling is in 
progress and the land should be offered for lease during the coming year. 
A survey has also been ordered for the reclaimed land at Cebu but has 
been stopped pending the final location of the custom-house and the 
railroad right-of-way. When these points have been determined it will 
be completed as soon as possible. 

INSULAR GOVERNMENT PROPERTY. 

The Director of Lands, who is the custodian of lands and property 
belonging to the Insular Government, is collecting rents on the land* 
occupied by the building owned by the Telephone and Telegraph Com- 
pany and by the building formerly occupied by the Assistant Director 
of Navigation. He is arranging as rapidly as possible for registering 
title to all of such property and at an early date will request the Attorney- 
General to file petitions in the Court of Land Eegistration on behalf of 
77352 5 



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the Insular Government for titles to land in Eizal Province, an experi- 
mental farm at Iloilo, a coal yard in Manila, a small lot in Paco, Manila, 
and a large tract of land situated in Bontoc, Province of Lepanto-Bontoc. 

ROAD SURVEYS AND MONUMENT LOCATIONS. 

The work of carrying out surveys of provincial roads, locating provin- 
cial and municipal boundaries and establishing permanent monuments 
so that known fixed points may be obtained to which all future surveys 
made may be referred, is progressing steadily. 

Surveys of nine municipalities located in the Provinces of Bulaean, 
Palawan and Moro have been completed. Trail .and fiver reconnois- 
sance and topographic sketching of 557 kilometers in the Province of 
Benguet have been completed during the year, and 376 kilometers have 
been executed in the Province of Lepanto-Bontoc. 

Eighty-two kilometers of accurate provincial road surveys have been 
completed in Bulaean, and 51 kilometers of road surveys have been 
made on the Islands of Cuyo and Busuanga. 

These surveys will be platted upon poly conic projection sheets, on 
a scale of 1 in 50,000, and as fast as surveys of private property are 
executed in the provinces they will be transferred to the polyconic sheets. 
This will ultimately result, by a process of elimination, in a map showing 
definitely the boundaries and area of the public lands, but the completion 
of such a map will be the work of many years. 

SAN LAZARO ESTATE. 

In the settlement of questions relative to the administration of, 
and title to, various properties heretofore in dispute between the Roman 
Catholic Church and the Government of the Philippine Islands a 
portion of the San Lazaro Estate was ceded to the Archbishop of 
Manila and the value of the estate remaining in the hands of the 
Government for administration was reduced from 1*2,327,740.95 to 
^2,177,428.95, while the contracted rentals were reduced from 1*57,217.90 
to f*48,263.04. 

The income from this estate should be much larger than at present 
but until many of the lots are filled and the city of Manila puts the 
the street system into a passably decent condition and extends the 
electric light and water systems to the estate, comparatively little 
further improvement can be anticipated. With a view to the registra- 
tion of the estate a survey has been made which includes a block and 
lot survey except for those lots which are too low for residence purposes. 

The blocks which have been subdivided have been rearranged. Build- 
ings have been moved to conform to the limits of the new lots and the 
ground has been leased according to the new subdivisions, thus leaving 
the streets free for public purposes. When the property is registered 



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it will be registered by blocks so as to insure the future keeping open of 
necessary streets and alleys. 

The completion of the subdivision survey will materially decrease the 
cost of administering the estate which now includes 2,383 lots of which 
1,824 are occupied and 559 vacant. The tenants number 1,199, 1,164 
being tenants at will, 29 having leases of six years, and 6 having leases 
of more than six years. 

The decrease of 1£ per cent in the rentals collected from the estate is 
entirely due to the transfer of a portion of the estate to the church. 
This transfer was effected on November 8, 1907, but as a matter of 
courtesy the Director of Lands continued to collect all rentals until 
December 31, 1907. 

Had this portion of the estate not been transferred there would have 
been an increase in rentals over the previous year of approximately 10 
per cent. Two hundred and seven suits in ejectment were brought 
against tenants of which one hundred and eighty-one were compromised 
on the payment of rent due and costs, and five are pending. In only 
twenty-one cases have rentors been dispossessed. 

Further, details as to the work of the Bureau of Lands will be found 
in the report of the Director. 

THE BUREAU OF AGRICULTURE. 

CONTROL OF ANIMAL DISEASES. 

The most important work of the Bureau of Agriculture during the 
year has been that for the purpose of bringing under control dangerous 
communicable diseases affecting domestic animals ; more especially rinder- 
pest and foot and mouth disease. 

The Director of Agriculture states in his annual report that conditions 
as to the prevalence of such diseases have been distinctly worse during 
the year just ended than during the previous fiscal year. The under- 
signed is by no means satisfied that this statement is entirely correct. 
The fact is that there has now come a great change in public sentiment 
relative to the work of the Bureau of Agriculture for the control of these 
diseases, and this change is not without its attendant embarrassments. 

A large proportion of the more ignorant inhabitants have until very 
recently regarded veterinarians and their work with dread, and when 
their domestic animals began to sicken and die have often made strenuous 
efforts to conceal the fact. Now a large proportion of the people have 
come to appreciate the value of the work done and are quick to report the 
presence of disease so that it may seem to be more prevalent even when 
this is not the case. At all events demands for assistance have come 
faster than they could be met. 

The steady increase of dangerous communicable diseases among animals 
imported from neighboring countries, and especially from Hongkong, 



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made necessary the passage of Act 1760, entitled "An Act to prevent the 
introduction into the Philippine Islands of dangerous communicable 
animal diseases, to prevent the spread of such diseases within the Islands, 
and for other purposes." This Act prohibits the admission into the 
Philippines of shipments of diseased animals without the direct authority 
of the Director of Agriculture and confers upon that official ample powers 
relative to the quarantining of imported animals as well as of those raised 
in the country. 

Under the rules now in force for the carrying out of this Act, when 
three successive shipments of infected animals have been received from any 
port the Director of Agriculture does not allow further infected shipments 
from such port to enter. In actual practice this has resulted in the 
temporary complete suspension of the cattle trade between Hongkong and 
Manila, but during a period of many months previous to this suspension 
practically every shipment of cattle received from Hongkong was infected 
on arrival, and it was obviously worse than useless to hope for success 
in eradicating animal diseases while this state of affairs continued, for if 
these infected shipments were to continue to enter and if the animals 
composing them were to be scattered throughout the provinces the result 
would be the constant appearance of new foci of disease. 

In reality this Act ought to have been passed much sooner. As it was, 
foot-and-mouth disease, introduced from Hongkong, infected twenty- five 
provinces. 

Since it took effect conditions have improved quite steadily, and the 
chief embarrassment which confronts us at present is that due to insuf- 
ficient personnel and serum to meet the demands of the public. The 
employment of additional veterinarians has been authorized. The facili- 
ties for the production of serum will soon be greatly increased by the 
completion of stables for 284 bullocks at Alabang, while the cost of its 
production has been considerably reduced by the installation at the Bu- 
reau of Science of a new, large and very powerful centrifuge for separating 
serum from blood and by the discovery of Dr. Ruediger, of the same 
Bureau, that physiological salt solution injected into the peritoneal cavities 
of virulent blood animals may be drawn off when the animals are bled 
and is then more effective than is the blood itself in producing the neces- 
sary reaction in serum animals prior to obtaining from the latter the 
blood from which rinderpest serum is derived. The" value of each viru- 
lent blood animal is thus more than doubled. 

As appropriations have now been made for the establishment of quaran- 
tine stations at Manila, Cebu and Iloilo, the three principal ports of 
entry for cattle, it is believed that within the next year much greater 
progress will be possible than has heretofore been made in ridding the 
Islands of dangerous, communicable animal diseases. In fact the situa- 
tion has already very greatly improved, and on September 15 there was 
not a single important -outbreak of rinderpest in the Islands. 



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SALE OF SERUM ANIMALS. 

The serum animals eventually attain such a high degree of immunity 
that it becomes necessary to inject a very large amount of virulent blood 
in order to produce any reaction whatever. It eventually ceases to 
be profitable to obtain serum from them and they are sold at auction. 
The faith of the public in their immunity is demonstrated by the keen- 
ness of the competition for them. Animals which would be worth from 
f*60 to 1*80 if not immunized readily bring 1*100 to 1*130 pesos. 

Upon the completion of the new serum stables at Alabang and the 
transfer of the herd to that place, it is proposed to continue the present 
stables on the San Lazaro Estate and to use them for immunizing ani- 
mals belonging to private individuals, making a reasonable charge to 
cover expenses. 

PROPOSED SALE OF SERUM. 

There have been very numerous demands for serum from persons who 
desired to have it on hand as a precautionary measure or who wished 
temporarily to immunize their herds. Heretofore it has seldom been 
possible to sell serum to such persons, as all that could be manufactured 
was imperatively needed by the Bureau of Agriculture. 

With the completion of the new stables which makes .possible a 
material increase in the size of the serum herd, and with the more rapid 
and complete extraction of serum which will be obtained by the large 
new centrifuge just installed, it should be possible to produce a good 
deal more than is required for the ordinary uses of the Government and 
the surplus will be sold at reasonable prices to any one who may desire to 
purchase it. 

ESTABLISHMENT OF A VETERINARY COLLEGE RECOMMENDED. 

The undersigned is fully convinced that the first college of the 
proposed new university to be established should be a college of veterinary 
medicine and surgery. In the past it has always been difficult to obtain 
a sufficient number of properly qualified veterinarians from the United 
States. New men upon arrival are necessarily compelled to spend a 
considerable amount of time familiarizing themselves with tropical ani- 
mal diseases and with the methods which have proved most successful in 
combating them. They must also learn a good deal of Spanish and 
in fact it is not until they have acquired a considerable knowledge of the 
local native dialects and have had a large amount of experience in deal- 
ing with the people in the provinces that they reach their maximum use- 
fulness. 

Men born and reared in the Islands must always have a great advan- 
tage over those brought in from the outside, if equally well trained, and 
the facilities for giving the best of training can be provided at a relatively 
small cost. 



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The course of study should be of four years duration. The first two 
years can be given in the Philippine Medical School as at present or- 
ganized with little or no additional expense. The last two years can be 
provided for in connection with the Manila Quarantine Station, where 
a veterinary hospital should in any event be established and where tech- 
nical instruction can be given by the veterinarians in charge. Until 
such time as conditions greatly improve there should be a competent 
veterinarian in every province in the Philippine Islands, and to this end 
the government should provide one or more free scholarships for each 
province, with the proviso that the beneficiary in each case shall serve 
the government, at a moderate salary, for at least four years after gradua- 
tion. The present arrangement which allows but one veterinarian to 
each four or five provinces or islands of considerable importance is highly 
unsatisfactory. 

Heretofore the most serious difficulty in the way of combating dan- 
gerous communicable animal diseases has been the hostile attitude of the 
more ignorant people of the Islands. The great change which has now 
arisen is both gratifying and encouraging. The undersigned felt that 
it was certain to come in the end but did not expect it so soon or he 
would have tried to have the Bureau of Agriculture better prepared to 
meet the largely increased volume of work resulting from it. 

PUBLICATIONS. 

With some hesitation the issuing of a monthly publication known as 
the "Philippine Agricultural Eeview" has been entered upon and five 
numbers have appeared. They have been extremely well received, the 
demand for them being so great that the Spanish edition of the first 
three numbers is already entirely exhausted. The Eeview is proving of 
the greatest value in bringing the Bureau of Agriculture more closely in 
touch with the people. 

Farmers' Bulletin No. 15 on "Tobacco Growing in the Philippines," 
Press Bulletin No. 11 on "Seed Distribution, Need of Diversified Farm- 
ing," etc., and a circular on kapok have also been published. The first 
of these was issued in English, Spanish, Ibanag and Ilocano, the second 
in English and Spanish and the third in English, Spanish, Ilocano, 
Tagalog and two dialects of Visayan. 

AGRICULTURAL-EXTENSION WORK. 

Under the superintendency of Sr. Pablo Tecson, agricultural-extension 
work has progressed satisfactorily. As in the case of the publication of 
the Agricultural Eeview, the object of this work is to bring the Bureau 
of Agriculture more closely in contact with the people of the Islands 
and with the practical problems confronting agriculturists here. Sr. 
Tecson travels quite steadily in the provinces and has brought widely to 
the attention of the people the results of the work of the Bureau in 



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treating and checking the spread of dangerous, communicable animal 
disease, the advantage of improved methods of cultivation and of the 
planting of certain special crops, and the methods by which seeds or 
plants of improved varieties of fruits, vegetables, cereals, fiber plants, 
etc., may be obtained from the Bureau of Agriculture, and in various 
other ways has rendered valuable services. 

He has carried on investigations in the Provinces of Batangas, Nueva 
Ecija, Bulacan, Occidental Negros, and Tarlac, reporting the results of 
his work to the Bureau. These investigations have in each locality 
covered such subjects as soil conditions, possible irrigation facilities, 
existing agricultural products, products which might profitably be in- 
troduced and the condition of live stock and poultry. 

CROP REPORTING AND STATISTICS. 

The Bureau of Agriculture has gradually organized quite an effective 
force for crop reporting and the gathering of agricultural statistics, and 
at the request of its Director the Weather Bureau, which was by law 
required to make crop reports and which had rendered valuable services 
considering its limited facilities, has been relieved from the necessity of 
continuing to make these reports. 

While many obstacles have been encountered, both by the Weather 
Bureau and by the Bureau of Agriculture, it can be said that the 
number of crop reporters is steadily increasing, that the character of the 
reports rendered is steadily improving and that the Philippine Agricul- 
tural Review affords a quite satisfactory medium for the dissemination 
of the information thus obtained. 

MECHANICAL PLOWING. 

Experiments in the use of mechanically propelled plows have steadily 
continued and have served only to confirm the conclusion hitherto 
reached, namely that wherever there exists a considerably tract of reason- 
ably level land which has been freed from stumps and large stones and 
which is on or near a suitable water supply, steam plowing can be 
carried on to good advantage and at moderate cost. 

The Bureau of Agriculture has had two steam plowing outfits at 
work for private individuals on the Santa Rosa friar estate where much 
of the arable land is rolling or hilly and is divided into comparatively 
small plats by streams, ditches, hedges and wooded areas. Although 
these persons were under contract to provide dry fuel, water and a 
certain amount of labor, in nearly every instance they failed to furnish 
the fuel and water promised and in not a few cases were very dilatory 
about providing labor. In some places water was difficult to obtain. 
Nevertheless large areas hitherto overgrown with cogon or runo grass 
were brought under cultivation and the owners of the land seem well 
satisfied with the results. However, the necessity of bringing in coal 



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for fuel and of using the plowing engines as stump pullers materially 
increased the cost of plowing over what it would have been had the 
owners provided dry wood and properly cleared their land. 

Just at the beginning of the rainy season the Bureau of Agriculture 
secured a Hart-Parr petroleum plowing engine. This engine has several 
pronounced advantages over steam plowing engines. Its relatively light 
weight (19,000 pounds) facilitates its passage over bad ground and 
weak bridges and as it consumes comparatively little power in propel- 
ling itself a large part of the energy generated is available for traction 
purposes. It can be started and stopped almost instantly and the loss 
of time involved in getting up steam in the morning and drawing 
fires at night is avoided. No large transportation problem is involved 
in keeping it supplied with fuel. It uses very little water and, in fact, 
when it starts in the morning carries kerosene and water enough for 
an entire day's run so that it can work uninterruptedly. 

The engine has proved to be readily manageable and the traction 
results obtained are most satisfactory. ' It only remains to demonstrate 
whether or not it will endure continuous service under the severe con- 
ditions which prevail in these Islands. The early advent of the rainy 
season has prevented any conclusive answer to this question. As soon 
as the land dries off sufficiently to make plowing possible this engine 
will be put at hard and continuous work and the results noted. So far 
as our experiments have gone it has proved most satisfactory. 

MAGUEY. 

Interest in maguey planting continues unabated and the Bureau of 
Agriculture has furnished both Hawaiian and Philippine plants for 
distribution in large numbers, having sent out 42,475 of the former 
and 1,422,640 of the latter. 

GUINEA GKASS. 

Guinea grass is by far the most important plant which has recently 
been introduced here. It produces an extraordinary amount of highly 
nutritive fodder which is greedily eaten by horses, cattle and pigs. At 
the beginning of the calendar year 3,026 square meters of land at the 
Singalong station were planted with this grass. During the following 
six months four cuttings of fodder aggregating 21,543 kilos, which is 
equivalent to 78 tons per hectare or 31-J tons per acre, were made. 

When it is remembered that the soil at Singalong is poor and sandy, 
and that the vitality of the plants was apparently unimpaired after four 
cuttings, the extraordinary nature of this result will be appreciated. 

Another plat of land at this station containing 2,533 square meters 
was planted during the first week in April. This crop followed corn. 
It was given one light irrigation but no fertilizer. The first cutting was 



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useful in sending typhoon warnings to vessels on the China sea and 
possibly to points on the neighboring Asiatic coast. 

The results of the work of the Weather Bureau during the year have 
been so concisely stated in the report of the Director that it would be 
useless for the undersigned to endeavor further to condense them for 
the purpose of this report. 

RECEIPTS AND DISBURSEMENTS OF BUREAUS. 

A statement of the receipts and disbursements of each Bureau of this 
Department will be found in the annual report of its Director. 
Very respectfully, 

Dean C. Worcester, 

Secretary of the Interior. 
To the Philippine Commission, 

Manila, P. I. 

O 



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